Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Foreword

Theodore Zev Weiss

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pp. xi-xii

This is the sixth volume of scholarly papers published as an outgrowth of the Lessons and Legacies Conferences that the Holocaust Educational Foundation sponsors in partnership with major centers of higher learning. As with Lessons and Legacies Conferences...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

When I entered Stanford as an undergraduate, I had no knowledge or awareness of the Holocaust. My mother’s family was Jewish, my father’s evangelical Christian. The compromise was to raise me with no religion whatsoever, and neither parent displayed much...

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Introduction

Jeffry M. Diefendorf

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pp. xv-xxxiv

Like the five earlier books in this series, this volume is a record, at least in part, of a Lessons and Legacies Conference on the Holocaust, in this case the meeting held at Northwestern University in November 2000. The sheer size of these conferences, and the range...

I. Rethinking Nazi Policies

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Concentration Camps and Cultural Policy: Rethinking the Development of the Camp System, 1936–41

Paul B. Jaskot

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pp. 5-20

It has long been recognized that one of the defining characteristics of the National Socialist regime was its ability to infiltrate, mobilize, and radicalize every major aspect of German public life. Scholars have often used this point to indicate the complexity...

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The Relationship of the Auschwitz Camp to the Outside Environment, Economy, and Society

Sybille Steinbacher

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pp. 21-36

While in the 1950s the name “Auschwitz” was already heard often in both West Germany and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), for both countries it simply served as a cipher. In the GDR, it was basically shorthand for the criminal consequences...

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The Nazis and the Jews of Italy: New Sources on the Responsibility for the Holocaust in Italy

Richard Breitman

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pp. 37-52

On july 23, 1943, in response to rumors about a plot to overthrow Mussolini’s government, Herbert Kappler set up a short-wave radio in his office in Rome and established contact with his superiors in Berlin.1 Technically a police attaché within the...

II. Resistance and Rescue

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The Problem of Non-Armed Jewish Reactions to Nazi Rule in Eastern Europe

Yehuda Bauer

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pp. 55-68

There is a general historiographic tradition, to which I myself have also contributed, that deals with Jewish reactions to German policies in Eastern Europe in World War II in terms that sometimes seem to approach hagiography.1 Not that the facts on which...

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Motivation in Holocaust Rescue: The Case of Jan Zwartendijk in Lithuania, 1940

Jonathan Goldstein

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pp. 69-87

In their seminal work on the 1938–40 flight of approximately 20,000 German, Austrian, and Czech Jews to Shanghai, mainly via Italian and French seaports, Hebrew University historians Avraham Altman and Irene Eber discuss both individual motivation...

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Against All Odds: Successes and Failures of the Dutch Palestine Pioneers

Yehudi Lindeman

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pp. 88-111

As early as 1961, the Dutch historian Jacob (Jacques) presser defended the notion that, contrary to popular belief, Jewish men and women in the Netherlands played significant roles in every phase of resistance against the occupying Germans...

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Women of Courage: The Kashariyot (Couriers) in the Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust

Lenore J. Weitzman

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pp. 112-152

The Kashariyot were young women who travelled illegally on missions for the Jewish resistance in Nazi-occupied eastern Europe during the Holocaust. Using false papers to conceal their Jewish identities, they smuggled underground newspapers...

III. German Scholars and the Holocaust

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Anti-Jewish Research of the Institut zur Erforschung der Judenfrage in Frankfurt am Main between 1939 and 1945

Patricia von Papen-Bodek

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pp. 155-189

Under the Third Reich, a new extra-university discipline emerged: Judenforschung, or research on Jews and Jerusalem. In its wake, anti-Jewish research institutions mushroomed throughout the Reich, providing the regime with quasi-scholarly legitimization...

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Unasked Question: The Controversy about Nazi Collaboration among German Historians

Konrad Jarausch

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pp. 190-208

During the 1998 meeting of German historians in Frankfurt, the public was surprised by charges of Nazi collaboration of leading West German historians of the postwar period. In a preliminary newspaper interview, the new president of the...

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The Historiography of Horror: The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial and the German Historical Imagination

Devin Pendas

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pp. 209-230

In July 1962, the academic advisory board (Wissenschaftliche Beirat) of the Munich-based Institute for Contemporary History held its annual meeting. In keeping with the board’s general supervisory role, it considered not only the institute’s research activities...

IV. Historiography and the Challenges to Historians

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“Euphoria of Victory” as the Key: Situating Christopher Browning on the Map of Research on the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question”

Dan Michman

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pp. 233-251

Christopher Browning can be defined as the leading expert today on the issue of the decision-making process of the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. This definition stands, I believe, both for those who accept his theses on the issue entirely and for those who...

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Browning and the Big Picture

Gerhard Weinberg

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pp. 252-258

It is probably not very often that someone is asked to speak at a scholarly conference about the work of his own academic successor, but it only shows that the members of the History Department at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are still as smart...

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New Research on the Holocaust in Poland

Dariusz Stola

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pp. 259-284

Poland was the principal place of the Holocaust, Polish Jews were the first and largest group of its victims, and non-Jewish Poles were the largest group of the witnesses of the crime. Poland was also the country where the research on the Holocaust...

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Some Recent Trends in German Holocaust Research

Christian Gerlach

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pp. 285-299

The following story of General Eduard Wagner might illustrate why some of the shifts in German research about the Holocaust in recent years took place. Born in 1894, Wagner joined the army in 1912 and became an artillery officer. In the 1930s Wagner reorganized...

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Does Atrocity Have a Gender? Feminist Interpretations of Women in the SS

Susannah Heschel

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pp. 300-322

Christopher Browning’s study of a mobile killing unit composed of civilian police officers who went from town to town murdering Jews in Poland, Ordinary Men (1992), aroused criticism among feminist historians for insufficient attention to the role...

V. Trials, Compensation, and Jewish Assets

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Scales of Justice: History, Testimony, and the Einsatzgruppen Trial at Nuremberg

Hilary Earl

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pp. 325-351

Most historians agree that the mass murder of Soviet jewry by units of the SS-Einsatzgruppen in the summer of 1941 marks a watershed in Nazi racial policy toward Europe’s Jews. Some even view their activities as the beginning of Hitler’s plan for...

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Legitimating the Criminal State: Former Nazi Judges and the Distortion of Justice at the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 1963–65

Rebecca Wittmann

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pp. 352-372

Between 1945 and 1992, West German judicial authorities investigated over 100,000 suspects allegedly involved in Nazi crimes. Of these, only 6,487 were tried and convicted.1 Of all 6,487 defendants, 13 were sentenced to death, 163 to life imprisonment...

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German Compensation to Jewish Nazi Victims

Constantin Goschler

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pp. 373-412

While the issue of German compensation for Nazi victims has been a topic of minor public interest for most of the time since the end of the Second World War, it has featured more prominently over the last few years, especially in the United States...

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Compensation Cases and the Nazi Past: Deutsche Bank and Its Historical Legacy

Jonathan Steinberg

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pp. 413-430

In December 1997, the Deutsche Bank Ag, Frankfurt Am Main, approached me to ask if I would serve on a Historical Commission to look into the bank’s activities during the Nazi regime and the Second World War. The other members of the commission were...

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Holocaust-Era Assets: Globalization of the Issue

Helen Junz

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pp. 431-446

On January 3, 1996, the U.S. Congress unanimously passed a resolution demanding that the government declassify all information concerning persons suspected of war crimes. In doing so they recalled that “during the 104th Congress America had celebrated the...

VI. Confronting the Past

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The Innocent Eye: Childlike, Childish, and Children’s Perspectives on The Holocaust

Ian Buruma

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pp. 449-456

A witness account, from Polish archives:
They deported us to Russia on February 10, 1940. It was very cold. In our transport at the station there were one hundred freight cars; 3 locomotives pulled the train. They didn’t give us water on the...

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How and Why Did Holocaust Memory Come to the United States? A Response to Peter Novick’s Challenge

Jeffrey Herf

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pp. 457-474

For most of the period since the Holocaust, a clear and unambiguous dichotomy stood at the center of all discussion of its memory. On the one side were those who stood in favor of memory, which was synonymous with searching for truth about what happened...

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Facing the Holocaust in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands

Pieter Lagrou

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pp. 475-486

The Holocaust took place in europe: it was perpetrated on European soil and it is part of European history. Compared to the question of the presence of the Holocaust in North America, the question for its presence in Europe is obvious and seems to call for...

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Excusing the Holocaust: German Catholics and the Sensation of Cardinal Aloisius Muench’s “One World in Charity,” 1946–59

Suzanne Brown-Fleming

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pp. 487-523

On june 2, 1945, barely one month after the end of World War II in Europe, Pope Pius XII made a statement regarding the relationship between the German people and Nazi atrocities. He declared that most Germans, and especially Catholics, were not responsible...

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Germany’s Holocaust Memorial Problem--and Mine

James E. Young

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pp. 524-542

Once, not so long ago, germany had what it called a “Jewish problem.” Then it had a paralyzing Holocaust memorial problem, a double-edged conundrum: how would a nation of former perpetrators mourn its victims? How would a divided...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 543-547