Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xi

My research for this book began in the early 1990s at St. Petersburg State University, where I grew interested in the history of the Orthodox church and religion in tsarist Russia. Participation in a special seminar taught by Boris Nikolaevich Mironov helped me connect these interests to the problems of empire...

Note on Transliteration

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p. xiii

Abbreviations

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p. xv

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Introduction: Understanding the “Muslim Question” and Its Changing Contexts

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pp. 1-18

This study is an inquiry into Russian thinking about what was historically known as the “Muslim Question”—in Russian, Musul’manskii vopros. Although Russian tsars had ruled over Muslim subjects as early as the sixteenth century, the “Muslim Question” emerged only in the second half of the nineteenth century...

Part 1. The Emergence of the Muslim Question

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1. The Crimean War and Its Aftermath: The Question of Muslim Loyalty and Alienation

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pp. 21-32

The Crimean War (1853–1856) proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. Its humiliating outcome forced Russia’s educated elites to identify the empire’s problems and recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia’s position in the ranks of European...

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2. The Challenges of Apostasy to Islam

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pp. 33-53

In the period immediately after the emancipation of the serfs, when government policies embraced both the integration of Muslims and the larger project of modernization, Russians received a new blow. Thousands of baptized Tatars in Kazan province renounced their affiliation with Orthodoxy and petitioned to be officially recognized as...

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3. “What Do We Need from Muslims?” Combating Ignorance, Alienation, and Tatarization

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pp. 54-83

The apostasy crisis posed an unsolvable riddle to modernizing Russians: How might Muslims, who simultaneously appeared to be alienated and dominating, be accommodated to the needs of the state? The issue of mass education, a hallmark of modernization, became a primary site of struggle for the Muslim Question...

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4. “In Asia We Come as Masters”: The Challenge of the Civilizing Mission in Turkestan

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pp. 84-105

The contentious debate on the premises involved in making Russia a viable imperial power took place at the same time that the country achieved a burst of territorial expansion in the east. Following the occupation of Chimkent in the Kokand khanate in 1864, Russia’s conquests in Central Asia significantly enlarged...

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5. Dilemmas of Regulation and Rapprochement: The Problem of Muslim Religious Institutions

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pp. 106-134

As we have seen, the appropriate role of the government in monitoring and regulating Muslim educational institutions formed an integral part of the Russian debate about the place of Muslims in a modernizing empire. This debate was not, however, limited to schools. Since the time of Catherine the Great, the imperial...

Part 2. The Muslim Question during the Era of Mass Politics

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6. Challenges of Revolution and Reform

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pp. 137-153

As it had in the Crimean conflict fifty years earlier, the empire’s military’s failure in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 discredited the tsarist government, hurt Russians’ national pride, and further aggravated the country’s already tense political situation. The growing sociopolitical crisis forced the government of Nicholas...

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7. The Muslim Question in the Aftermath of the Revolution

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pp. 154-169

The introduction of elected legislative institution and the promise of civil liberties had set Russia on a new path. The political liberalizations of the 1905 revolution, however, were not to last. Nicholas II regretted losing the power he had ceded and sought to undo the concessions he had made. The government...

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8. “Solving” the Muslim Question

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pp. 170-194

As of 1910, the tsar’s government found itself with multiple, contested, and contradictory recommendations about the Muslim Question. While many of these initiatives were launched during Stolypin’s time, they were carried out in a changing political context. Stolypin himself did not last long; he was assassinated...

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9. World War I

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pp. 195-214

The outbreak of war in July 1914 imposed new pressures on the Russian empire. Military defeats intensified imperial authorities’ old misgivings about non-Russians’ “separatism.” All of the belligerent states raised the issues of nationality and religion to destabilize the enemy, thus making questions about the loyalty...

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Conclusion: Could the Muslim Question Have Been Solved?

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pp. 215-224

This book has examined the creation, development, and internal contradictions of a set of perceptions about Muslims, bundled under the construct of the Muslim Question. The conception of a “question” about Muslims—in Russian, vopros— served for educated Russians as a way of articulating their anxieties...

Notes

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pp. 225-264

Bibliography

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pp. 265-290

Index

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pp. 291-299