Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures

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pp. ix-xiv

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

The idea for this edited volume evolved out of a symposium organized for the 75th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in...

Part I: Introduction

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1. Andean Wak’as and Alternative Configurations of Persons, Power, and Things

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pp. 3-20

In contrast to the plethora of archaeological studies focused on presumably secular aspects of society like subsistence practices, the economy, and political organization, investigations into the realm of...

Part II: Contemporary Orientations

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2. The Whole World Is Watching: New Perspectives on Andean Animism

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pp. 23-46

What was a wak’a? The word is central to our understanding of Inka culture. In colonial sources, wak’a (also guaca, huaca) referred to powerful places or to powerful objects like mummies or statues that were kept in these places. Inka society was...

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3. Wak’as: Entifications of the Andean Sacred

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pp. 47-72

What is, or what was, a wak’a? If you ask the question that way, you already assume a certain kind of answer, one in which a wak’a is a substance. But the assumption, which tends to characterize much anthropological treatment of “wak’a” today, is not...

Part III: Wak’as in the Time of the Inkas

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4. What Is a Wak’a? When Is a Wak’a?

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pp. 75-126

Perhaps no aspect of indigenous Andean life vexed colonial Spanish clerics as severely or in as many ways as wak’as. Spanish clergy and other state actors grasped at wak’as, attempting to apprehend them both intellectually and physically. However, with few...

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5. Pachacamac—Old Wak’a or Inka Syncretic Deity? Imperial Transformation of the Sacred Landscape in the Lower Ychsma (Lurín) Valley

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pp. 127-166

The Spanish chroniclers referred to the Lurín Valley by several names, including Ychsma or Irma, both Spanish transcriptions of an Aymara word, and Pachacamac, which is a Quechua word. This south-central coastal valley is one of the...

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6. Of Blood and Soil: Tombs, Wak’as, and the Naturalization of Social Difference in the Inka Heartland

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pp. 167-212

According to Inka legend, the world was forever changed when their ancestors ascended the craggy peak of Wanakauri, their gaze falling for the first time on the valley of Cuzco. From atop this summit, the ancestral Inkas first performed...

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7. Men Who Would Be Rocks: The Inka Wank’a

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pp. 213-238

Indigenous people of the Andes characterize mountain lords as the owners of all natural resources within their ranges of vision. Nevado, or glaciated peaks, are commonly referred to as “great watchers” (Allen 1988:41). The authority of...

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8. The Importance of Being Inka: Ushnu Platforms and Their Place in the Andean Landscape

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pp. 239-264

The Inka structures identified as ushnu platforms represent one material form of wak’a. The role of these features links to the need of the imperial Inka state to project power across...

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9. Ordering the Sacred and Recreating Cuzco

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pp. 265-292

In this chapter I consider the role of two distinct types of portable objects employed by the Inka state in the course of projecting its imperial ambitions and affirming control over conquered territories. I will argue that these kinds of objects assumed...

Part IV: Deeper Histories of Wak’as in the Andean Past

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10. The Shape of Things to Come: The Genesis of Wari Wak’as

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pp. 295-334

Lindsay Jones studies the comparative history of religions and how the sacred is expressed in architecture. He is also a Mesoamericanist, so he shares concerns that preoccupy Americanists in general, not least of which are the obstacles we face...

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11. Of Monoliths and Men: Human-Lithic Encounters and the Production of an Animistic Ecology at Khonkho Wankane

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pp. 335-366

In 2002 I participated in an austral winter solstice ritual at Qhunqhu Liqiliqi, a community in Jesus de Machaca that is home to the archaeological site of Khonkho Wankane, where I was directing archaeological research. This solstice ritual is...

Part V: Concluding Thoughts

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12. Final Reflections: Catequil as One Wak’a among Many

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pp. 369-396

The chapters in this volume all focus on wak’a—a concept that is hard to define but crucial to understanding Andean ideas of relationality and causality. Although part of our understanding of wak’a comes from colonial attempts to extirpate Andean “religion” and...

Contributors

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pp. 397-398

Index

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pp. 399-404