Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication, Quote

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Contents

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Maps

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Introduction. Severine’s Ancestors

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pp. 1-18

Severine Brock was born and raised in Osu, a small town on the Gold Coast. Her first language was Ga, yet it was not surprising when, in 1842, she married Edward Carstensen, the last governor of the Danish Fort Christiansborg. Women in her family had been marrying Danish men for...

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Chapter 1. Setting Up

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pp. 19-53

In 1700, the village of Osu amounted to fewer than a hundred family compounds spread out along rows of trees and broad paths that led down to the beach and the Danish fort. The clay and thatched dwellings consisted of smaller huts arrayed around interior courtyards, with long roofs that extended over the street; during the heat of the day people sat beneath them...

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Chapter 2. A Hybrid Position

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pp. 54-83

At the fort school at Christiansborg in 1724, sitting in the small church room, Anna Sophie and her sister would have smelled and heard the slave yard just below. The church room was very poorly ventilated, with only three small windows, and at times the smell from the yard was so harsh that the chaplain had to send his students out to collect anise leaves and twigs to burn...

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Chapter 3. “What in Guinea You Promised Me”

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pp. 84-113

On the morning of the last day of October 1765, sugar refiner Ludewig Ferdinand Rømer had an appointment in the Church of Our Lady Cathedral on Nørregade in Copenhagen. We can imagine him leaving his home in Nyhavn 11 and walking across town rather pleased with himself. Copenhagen...

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Chapter 4. “Danish Christian Mulatresses”

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pp. 114-139

In 1769, Lene Kühberg’s husband died in his rooms at Christiansborg, not in the house he shared with Lene in Osu. Yet his death reverberated in both worlds. Interim governor Frantz Joachim Kühberg was well known in Osu, having lived in Africa longer than most European men. He was first...

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Chapter 5. Familiar Circles

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pp. 140-176

In 1842, as his wife, Sara, was pregnant with their third child, Wulff Joseph Wulff waited impatiently to move into their new house in Osu. It had already been more than a year since he had asked his brother- in- law in Copenhagen to send him a stone plaque to hang over the front door. “Frederiksminde...

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Epilogue. Edward Carstensen’s Parenthesis

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pp. 175-180

Let us return to the pressure that Edward Carstensen was under when he enclosed Severine Brock’s death in that parenthesis. By the 1840s we do not have to look far to find representations of that modern racial hierarchy that made Wulff Joseph Wulff inclined to categorize all Africans as essentially the...

Notes

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pp. 181-232

Note on Sources

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pp. 233-236

Bibliography

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pp. 237-256

Index

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pp. 257-265

Acknowledgments

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pp. 267-269