Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Table of Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Foreword and Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xvi

Anthologies, it seems, have so many pieces that acknowledgements are a near impossibility; far too many debts are incurred in the course of the project. This project, because it was collaborative, owes a great debt to many people. It is a labor of love and respect, from myself, Luz...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-24

One sunny day in 1995, three Chicana/o graduate students at the University of California, San Diego stood outside their building waxing poetic on their yet-unrealized dissertations. When I, the newest of the threesome asked Greg Rodríguez what he “wanted to do” with his...

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Introduction to the Interviews

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pp. 25-34

I was a graduate student at Michigan State University when Antonia Castañeda gave a captivating presentation; the minute I saw her she mesmerized me. Her presence—a balance of humility, modesty and strength—combined with the ease with which she delivered an engaged...

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Part One: Speaking Back, Critiquing the Dominant Discourse

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pp. 35-36

First presented at the “Mexicana/Chicana Women’s History International Symposium” in Santa Monica, California (1982), “Political Economy” represents some of Dr. Castañeda’s earliest published work. As with other essays presented at that symposium, the work has proven foundational...

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1. The Political Economy of Nineteenth-Century Stereotypes of Californianas

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pp. 37-64

Recent scholarship in Chicano and women’s history has challenged the limited, stereotypic images of Mexicanos and women prevalent in the contemporary and historical literature of nineteenth-century California and the American west.1 In studying North American imperial...

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2. Malinche, Calafia y Toypurina

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pp. 65-88

Do this, that, or the other to your appearance to avoid being perceived as Indian—familiar, familial admonitions for Mexicana/Chicana (meaning mestiza), women and girls on the nineteenth- and twentieth-century Borderlands. Unspoken, but understood, in exhortations to mestizas to...

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Plática I

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pp. 89-98

Out in the empty fields near Crystal City and in front of recording devices, Castañeda recreated movements that as a young woman she repeatedly performed while picking potatoes. Dr. Castañeda’s anachronistic “danza del jale,” her rhythmically graceful though punishing movements...

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Part Two: Remapping a Tradition: Critical Historiographies

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pp. 99-102

Dr. Castañeda’s historiographies have survived over the years, passing from hand to hand and generation to generation, in part because we have yet to accomplish that which they called us to do: to reject colonial categories of analysis, re-envision the past, center the experience of...

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3. Women of Color and the Rewriting of Western History

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pp. 103-142

Historians have long struggled with the need to rewrite western history and to articulate a new, inclusive synthesis that fully incorporates the history of women of color.1 In her concluding remarks at the Women’s West Conference in Sun Valley, Idaho, in 1983, Suzan Shown Harjo...

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4. Gender, Race, and Culture

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pp. 143-186

Historians, whether writing for a popular or a scholarly audience, reflect contemporary ideology with respect to sex, race, and culture. Until the mid-1970s, when significant revisionist work in social, women’s, and Chicano history began to appear, the writing of California history...

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Plática II

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pp. 187-196

The interview between Drs. Tomás Ybarra-Frausto and Antonia Castañeda took place in the home of Dr. Ybarra-Frausto and his partner Dudley Brooks. Inside their downtown loft, white walls displayed a collection of Mexican masks and large bookcases with works on Chicana/ o and...

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Part Three: Writing Mestiza and Indigenous Women into History

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pp. 197-200

Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest,” and “Engendering the History of Alta California,” Castañeda moves the body, sex and gender to the center of historical analysis. Thus, in the following essays, sexual violence and the patriarchal family structure women’s lives, evoke...

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5. Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest

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pp. 201-228

In words reminiscent of sixteenth-century chroniclers Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Bartolomé de las Casas, the father president of the California missions, Junipero Serra, described the depredations of the soldiers against Indian women in his reports and letters to Viceroy Antonio María...

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6. Engendering the History of Alta California, 1769–1848

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pp. 229-272

From 1769, when the first entrada (incursion) of soldiers and priests arrived in California to extend Spanish colonial hegemony to the farthest reaches of the northern frontier, women and girls were the target of sexual violence and brutal attacks. In the San Gabriel region, for example...

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Plática III

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pp. 273-290

The morning I interviewed three of the founders of Chicana History: Dr. Antonia Castañeda, Dr. Emma Pérez, and Dr. Deena González, I woke up feeling energized and excited. I had organized the shooting months before and a friend of Castañeda had kindly offered her loft to shoot...

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Part Four: Embodied Histories

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pp. 291-294

Like Castañeda’s earlier work, the four articles in this section highlight the need to question, critique and dismantle old categories for the writing of history. Born of nationalist and white supremacist assumptions, such categories functioned to erase Chicana histories. Thus, as Deena González...

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7. “Que Se Pudieran Defender (So You Could Defend Yourselves)”

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pp. 295-330

Chicana lives, inscribed on roadways and waterways, link people, rivers, communities, valleys, and regions in histories embedded, since long before the sixteenth century, in northward migrations from Mesoamerican valleys to Inuit shores.1 Where and how do these lives, linked across...

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8. Language and Other Lethal Weapons

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pp. 331-348

Age 7: El Doctor1
“Dile que no puedo respirar—que se me atora el aire. Dile…” How do I say “atora”? (Tell him that I can’t breathe that the air gets stuck. Tell him …)

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9. Lullabies y Canciones de Cuna

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pp. 349-370

I am interested in lullabies because the concepts, words, ideas, and emotions conveyed in these earliest, most basic forms of communication we hear as children, and that our mothers may have sung while we are still in the womb, form the subsoil of our own sense of being and...

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10. “La Despedida”

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pp. 371-378

“Se murió Doña Chelo,” I heard my mother say when Doña Fina opened the door.
“Noooo. ¿Cómo? Ay, Virgen santísima. ¿Y la criatura. . .?”
“La salvaron.”...

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Conclusion to Three Decades of Engendering History

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pp. 379-386

At UC, Berkeley in the 1970s, fewer than 500 Chicanos and Chicanas, graduate and undergraduate, attended the university—a university whose reputation was both liberal and trendsetting. Often, underrepresented minorities were able to find one another because we were so few. In most...

Permissions Acknowledgments

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pp. 387-388

Bibliography

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pp. 389-438

Index

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pp. 439-452