Cover

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Title page, Editorial series, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

This study was made possible by a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Stipend, and through support for research in Irish publishing and linguistic history by a Newberry Library Short-Term Fellowship in Irish and Irish-American Studies and an O’Donnell Fellowship in Irish Studies at Newman...

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Notes on Names and Sources

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pp. xiii-2

Irish-speaking writers, scribes, and commentators of the period in question here often varied in the spelling of their names, presenting not only differences in Irish-language versions, but also signing their works using an anglicized version if their perceived audience was English speaking. This variety spilled over...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-20

By the third decade of the nineteenth century, it is estimated that Ireland was home to between three and four million speakers of the Irish language, more than at any other time in the history of this language community. Despite declining as a proportion of the overall population of the island over the course of the...

Part I: Identities

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1. Language Bonds and the English-Speaking Other

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pp. 23-62

The noted Irish-language revivalist, author, and priest Peadar Ó Laoghaire (1839–1920), reflecting in his autobiography on the shock he experienced on first arriving at St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth, in 1861 and finding that many of his fellow students had been raised without...

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2. Peasant Etymologies

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pp. 63-82

In 1939 the folk collector Seán Ó Flannagáin interviewed locals of the parish of Tulla, in east County Clare, about the names of fields, gardens, and lakes in the area. Although born less than thirty kilometers away in Gort, Co. Galway, just across the Clare-Galway border, Ó Flannagáin marveled...

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3. Bilingualism and the Humor of Language Contact

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pp. 83-108

The local and regional identities built around speaking Irish, however stoutly built on recognized linguistic variations and shared understandings of a common confessional and political history, nevertheless faced a significant challenge in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries...

Part II: Encounters

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4. Education and Established Church

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pp. 111-148

Given the nature of English conquest and rule in Ireland, the status of the Irish language among Irish speakers was inevitably molded by the policies and influences of the English-speaking state in everyday life. The scope of that presence varied considerably over the centuries, however...

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5. Courtroom and Polling Booth

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pp. 149-180

Whereas the Irish administration and their English counterparts had been forced to address the question of language in the realms of education and religion as early as the sixteenth century, language did not become salient in two other key areas of intersection between...

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6. Language and Catholic Devotional Reform

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pp. 181-222

In publishing his Irish-language Catholic instructional manual, The Catholic Children’s Religious Primer (1825), the Waterford schoolteacher and chapel clerk Pádraig Denn (1756–61828) noted that his new work would join a crowded field of Irish catechisms to be found, he observed, “in every...

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7. Priests, Pastoral Care, and Catholic Policy

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pp. 223-267

Although the ideology of reform expressed in the Irish-language manuscripts and printed texts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries depended in no small part on the efforts of lay scribes, translators, and publishers, the modern Irish Catholic Church was still a product of...

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Conclusion

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pp. 268-274

Summarizing the challenges to administering the Austrian empire posed by linguistic diversity, a contributor to the 6 September 1866 issue of the Pall Mall Gazette contrasted the ease with which the British could govern at home. Conveying a sense of relief, it was noted: “It is almost impossible for an Englishman...

Source Abbreviations

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pp. 275-276

Notes

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pp. 277-348

Bibliography

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pp. 349-418

Index

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pp. 419-450