Cover

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Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication, Epigraph

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Contents

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pp. vii-x

List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

List of Tables

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

This book would not have been written but for the help and encouragement I have enjoyed from a whole range of people and institutions. I owe a special debt to libraries and archives in many countries, including those of the Ateneo and Universidad Carlos III in Madrid; the British Library, Guildhall Library, and British Library of Political & Economic Science in London; the Archivo and...

Maps

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pp. xvii-xxx

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Introduction

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pp. xxxi-xxxviii

Wine is not a homogenous product. A bottle from one of Bordeaux’s first growths of the 2000 vintage today sells for several thousand dollars, much more than virtually any other wine, not just for that particular vintage, but also those produced on the same estates in previous and later years. Like most readers of this book, I have never drunk such a wine and probably never will, but I still get...

Weights, Measures, and Currencies

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pp. xxxix-xl

Acronyms and Abbreviations

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pp. xli-xlii

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Part I. Technological and Organizational Change in Europe, 1840–1914

For thousands of years wine has been widely produced and drunk in western Europe. Traditional preindustrial economies often had high levels of underemployment, which made the vine attractive as it provided considerable employment opportunities during “all seasons, to all ages and both sexes.”1 According to the French historian Le Roy Ladurie, the “classic response of Mediterranean...

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1. European Wine on the Eve of the Railways

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pp. 3-29

Wine was an integral part of the population’s diet in much of southern Europe. In France on the eve of the railways, there were reportedly over one and a half million growers in a population of thirty-five million. High transport costs, taxation, and poor quality all reduced market size, and most wines were consumed close to the place of production. Volatile markets also forced most...

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2. Phylloxera and the Development of Scientific Viti-Viniculture

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pp. 30-57

Europe’s growers, winemakers, and merchants had to adapt to a series of important exogenous shocks in the half century prior to the First World War. On the demand side, the decline in transport costs produced by the railways, rapid urbanization, and rising incomes led to per capita wine consumption in France reaching more than 160 liters in the 1900s, and there were significant...

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3. Surviving Success in the Midi: Growers, Merchants, and the State

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pp. 58-76

A series of large demonstrations took place in the Midi during the summer of 1907 protesting against low prices and the sale of artificial wines. At the same time, many of Bordeaux’s leading quality wine producers were forced to look to their merchants for financial help, while growers of cheaper wines lobbied local and national governments to establish a regional Bordeaux appellation...

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Part II. The Causes of Export Failure

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pp. 77-80

The possibilities for farmers to sell in international markets increased enormously everywhere over the nineteenth century, as world trade grew annually by 4 percent, twice that of GDP among the world’s leading sixteen nations. Rapidly falling freight rates produced by improved shipping and more efficient port infrastructure cut the cost of trade between countries. Tariffs on many...

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4. Selling to Reluctant Drinkers: The British Market and the International Wine Trade

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pp. 81-106

The difficulties in creating a mass market for wine in nonproducer countries can be examined by considering in detail the nature and organization of the British market. Britain’s growing, comparatively wealthy urban population offered significant potential for wine producers everywhere: if it had consumed just one-tenth of the French figure in the 1890s, this would have created a demand...

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Part III. Institutional Innovation: Regional Appellations

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pp. 107-110

Chapter 4 argued that buyer-driven commodity chains in Britain failed to establish strong brand names as they had been able to do with many other foods and beverages. This was caused by the major volatility in wine quality, which was accentuated by vine disease; concerns of widespread fraud and adulteration; and the difficulties in establishing cheap impersonal exchange mechanisms to allow...

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5. Bordeaux

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pp. 111-131

The English occupation of Bordeaux between 1152 and 1453 led to a major growth in the wine trade, and imports peaked at 102,724 tons, or about 900,000 hectoliters, in 1308–9.1 Trade declined once more after the loss of the city and fluctuated over the centuries according to the political situation between the two countries. From the late seventeenth century, duties on French wines were...

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6. Champagne

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pp. 132-153

Champagne producers were the most successful of all producers in establishing brand names, informing consumers of wine quality, and associating the drink with the needs of the rapidly changing lifestyles of the middle and upper classes in rich urban societies during the nineteenth century. Output increased from just 300,000 bottles, equivalent to the production of about 150 hectares...

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7. Port

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pp. 154-170

Wine accounted for about half of all Portugal’s exports during the nineteenth century, with port assuming by far the greatest share. The best and most expensive was made by British merchants to meet consumer demand in their home market, where it enjoyed a privileged position for at least a century and a half after the signing of the Methuen Treaty in 1703. Port is a fortified...

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8. From Sherry to Spanish White

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pp. 171-190

Sherry is a name given to a wide variety of wine types produced in the geographical region around the Bay of Cadiz, including Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and El Puerto de Santa María, although for brevity the region is referred to here as Jerez.1 Exports to the British market grew rapidly from the late 1820s to a peak in 1873 at about 30 million liters and accounted...

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Part IV. The Great Divergence: The Growth of Industrial Wine Production in the New World

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pp. 191-194

Wine production was of little importance in the New World until the late nineteenth century. This was despite the considerable interest shown by colonial governments as wine was considered a valuable addition to local diet; was a necessity for the Catholic Church for celebrating Mass; and offered a potential source of taxation. In addition, viticulture, in contrast to ranching, required...

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9. Big Business and American Wine: The California Wine Association

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pp. 195-219

Wine has two very different histories in the United States. On the East Coast the attempts to plant European vines (Vitis vinifera) failed repeatedly because of the excessively harsh winters for the cold-sensitive European vine or endemic cryptogammic diseases such as downy and powdery mildew, anthracnose, and black rot, which thrived in areas of high humidity, as well as...

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10. Australia: The Tyranny of Distance and Domestic Beer Drinkers

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pp. 220-239

The Australian wine industry dates from the end of the eighteenth century, but as in California and Argentina, it was only in the two or three decades prior to the First World War that it became commercially important. The early settlers and government authorities were attracted to viticulture because it was a labor-intensive crop, allowing larger settlements than found with extensive...

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11. Argentina: New World Producers and Old World Consumers

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pp. 240-262

Argentina between 1869 and 1914 embarked on a period of exceptional growth, with per capita income increasing by an average of 5 percent a year and population jumping from 1.74 million to 7.89 million. By 1914 Argentina had a higher per capita income and real wages than in most European countries (table 11.1).1 Economic growth was caused by exogenous factors as falling transport...

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Conclusion

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pp. 263-272

This book has followed the growth and development of wine production from mostly small-scale family operators in southern Europe to a worldwide concern, with large-scale industrial producers using scientific wine-making methods and modern marketing techniques to sell their wine. Change was not uniform, and by 1914 major differences were found in the organization of production and...

Appendix 1. Vineyards and Wineries

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pp. 273-278

Appendix 2. Wine Prices

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pp. 279-290

Glossary

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pp. 291-292

Bibliography

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pp. 293-312

Index

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pp. 313-318