Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-ix

Acknowledgments

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p. xi

Part One: Trajectories

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1. Islam and the Republic

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pp. 3-14

My title, of course, rests on an indefensible premise. Islam cannot be exclusively French any more than it can be American or Egyptian, because its claims are universal. Although inflected and shaped by national or regional values, Islam, like Catholicism and Judaism, rests on traditions that cross political boundaries...

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2. Fashioning the French Islamic Landscape

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pp. 15-34

The entry of Islam into France’s public space touched two sharp nerves that had long run through the nation’s history of contentious politics: the tensions generated by waves of immigration, and the thin, sometimes frayed thread of religious toleration. In one sense Islam was nothing new, in another it was wholly different, and its entry brought back...

Part Two: Spaces

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3. Mosques Facing Outward

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pp. 37-62

Mosques become important in this landscape, and not only for religious reasons. Mosques and their smaller cousins, prayer houses, have become important spatial nodes around which Muslims work to shape the Islamic presence in France. They do so in ways that start from congregational prayer but extend to teaching, social services...

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4. Shaping Knowledge to France

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pp. 63-84

As teachers have developed Islamic institutes and schools in France, they have had to negotiate with French officials and meet the expectations of Muslim students. In some respects the first challenge has been the clearer of the two. The working relationships between elected or appointed officials and Muslim leaders are always unstable, sometimes...

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5. Differentiating Schools

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pp. 85-109

When we listened to Najjar at the Lyon Mosque or Hichem at CERSI talk about their pedagogical projects, they explained what they were doing in contradistinction to teachings they labeled as Salafi and considered to be simplistic. I now want to continue this ethnography of distinction- making but to turn our perspective...

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6. Can an Islamic School Be Republican?

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pp. 110-132

Now we move even closer toward the French educational mainstream and ask, Is the phrase “Islamic Republican school” an oxymoron? But one also could ask, Are all confessional schools not at odds with France’s Republican mission?
French Republican thinking makes the public school the primary instrument for making everyone into...

Part Three: Debates

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7. Should There Be an Islam for Europe?

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pp. 135-156

Let us step back for a moment and consider where we have taken our inquiry. We began with the forces that have shaped the present landscape of Islam in France: Muslims’ trajectories of arrival and settlement, a growing identification with Islam, and the state responses that applied the long tradition of French state control-through-support of...

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8. Negotiating across Realms of Justification

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pp. 157-178

Although some French Muslims might carry on deliberations within a transnational Islamic realm of justification, they live in the political space of France. Indeed, many Muslims in France consider their social lives to be mainly governed by French norms, while others, doubtless a much smaller number, might see only Islamic rules as shaping...

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9. Islamic Spheres in Republican Space

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pp. 179-198

We have moved from the broadly historical picture of the French Islamic landscape to a closer focus on the mosques, institutes, and schools that populate it, to a still closer-in look at the forms of reasoning and debate that take place among Muslims in these Islamic spaces. We were among Muslims, looking across and outward. In the previous...

Notes

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pp. 199-216

Bibliography

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pp. 217-226

Index

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pp. 227-230