Cover

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Title page, Editor page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

The present research was a long journey for me—and not just through modern European history of the twentieth century. It was also an opportunity to explore my own family history, to better understand where I came from, and to link this knowledge to the historical narrative...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xvi

Many people helped me complete this journey, whether by suggestions, insights, thoughts, or paths of research—or by ruling out some of my initial assumptions. They made a profound contribution to this research, and I extend my gratitude and appreciation...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

The Final Solution, which began with organized executions performed by the Einsatzgruppen and certain units of the Wehrmacht in conjunction with the Nazi struggle against the Soviet Union, and which eventually developed into the genocide of European Jewry, was...

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Part 1: Operation Typhoon and German Deportations to the East

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pp. 11-14

From October 16 to December 15, 1941, forty-three Jewish transports, which also included five Gypsy trains, left the German Reich for Lodz, Minsk, Riga, and Kovno in the East.1 This operation, which did not take place during the earlier successful blitz campaigns, appeared to have been a logistical burden that was not taken into consideration...

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1. Operation Barbarossa: From Minsk to Moscow

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pp. 15-26

To obtain a swift victory over the Soviet Union, the German High Command initially planned to annihilate the majority of Soviet forces in a series of encirclements close to the new Polish–Soviet border.1 The scheme presented to Hitler regarding the upcoming campaign...

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2. Operation Typhoon: The Battle for Moscow

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pp. 27-40

The objective of the second German operation in the Soviet Union, Operation Typhoon, which began where Barbarossa ended, was to conquer the Soviet capital. It began on October 2 and lasted until late December, when a Soviet counterattack struck a blow to the morale of...

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3. The German War Economy

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pp. 41-56

The Wehrmacht’s ability to confront the Red Army depended on the German economy, industrial production, emergency stocks, and supplies arriving from Germany to the troops at the front. Although it is true that Germany’s industrial production and capacity could not...

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4. Soviet Capabilities [Contains Map Galleries]

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pp. 57-82

The balance of power between Germany and the Soviet Union, particularly in the initial stages of the war in Russia, is a key factor in examining the relationship between the German war effort and the Final Solution. Despite their quantitative advantage and alleged tremendous...

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Part 2: Operation Reinhard and the Downfall at Stalingrad

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pp. 83-86

The 6th Army suffered logistical problems during the campaign at Stalingrad until their encirclement by Soviet forces in November 1942. These hardships resulted from the misuse of resources and the effort that the Germans invested in Operation Reinhard, which consisted of the establishment of three new death camps, Belzec, Sobibor, and...

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5. The Wehrmacht and the SS: Operating on Parallel Lines [Chapter Contains Photo Galleries]

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pp. 87-102

To understand the personnel and cooperation between SS officials and Wehrmacht leaders, it is important to understand the profiles of the decision makers who found themselves in the midst of the turmoil of the Battle at Stalingrad and who at the same time were aware of...

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6. From German Blue to Russian Uranus

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pp. 103-118

The two exhausted titans, Germany and the Soviet Union, had been fighting one another for almost a full year. The second half of 1942 and the beginning of 1943 demonstrated their equal abilities, the result of their balance of forces, which shaped perhaps one of the most important clashes of World War II...

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7. Jewish and Military Proportions: Reinhard versus Stalingrad

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pp. 119-131

The Germans’ military and civil logistics for the campaign in the Soviet Union and by the Wehrmacht, as well as for the death camps at the General Government and for the Final Solution, which was approaching its apogee, involved handling the transportation of fuel...

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8. The State of the Reichsbahn in Winter, 1942–1943 [Contains Map Galleries]

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pp. 132-150

It is doubtful whether Hitler would have launched a campaign against the Soviet Union without the Reichsbahn or whether Himmler would have moved ahead with his demonic program to exterminate European Jewry in its entirety without having some knowledge regarding the capacity of available trains for the mission to be successful. What influence...

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Part 3: The Battle of Kursk and the Height of the Final Solution

The Nazi war machine moved forward in investing all its powers, again risking its military campaigns in order to accomplish its ideological missions. The facts of the campaign at Kursk demonstrate that all the Germans succeeded in doing in the summer of 1943 was to use...

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9. On the Road to Another Disaster

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pp. 153-169

In spring 1943, the two major players in this colossal war game were reinforcing their armies and getting ready for the next challenges that awaited them. As in the previous campaigns, opportunities were again numerous, as were the debates and arguments within the German and Soviet high commands. It was also a period of assessment and analysis...

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10. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Footnote or Major Operation?

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pp. 170-184

While the supreme command of the Wehrmacht (OKW) was searching for the right place and the right time to continue its next maneuvers across the Voronezh and the central fronts, the SS was busy with its own front. The Warsaw ghetto, which in the spring of 1943 housed more than 56,000 Jews, was destined for liquidation by another big...

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11. The Allied Invasion of Sicily [Chapter Contains Photo Galleries]

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pp. 185-214

The Allied landings in Sicily on July 10, which might be said to have determined the outcome of Operation Citadel, left no room for mistakes in regard to future events. The balance of war turned against Germany, but surprisingly, and almost correspondingly, the eagerness...

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Part 4: The Extermination of Hungarian Jewry and the Allied Invasion of Normandy

The summer of 1944 was another turning point in the chronicles of World War II for two major reasons. The first was the opening of a second front on the European continent by the Allied invasion of western France, and the second was the final phase of the Jewish...

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12. A Long and Winding Road

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pp. 217-229

This chapter reviews the state of the German army during the months between the Battle of Kursk and the spring of 1944. The German invasion of its puppet ally, Hungary, was a turning point in the fate of the largest Jewish community still living in Europe, which was in a status quo with the authorities of the Hungarian state. That is, they...

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13. Risk and Fear of Invasion

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pp. 230-258

Challenges and risks confronted the German commanders when deciding on the strategic route they would pursue in spring 1944, as well as the balance of power between the Wehrmacht and the Western Allied armies. Despite Operation Overlord—the code name for the...

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14. The Destruction of Army Group Center

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pp. 259-274

The Russians launched a new offensive at the end of June 1944, three years after Operation Barbarossa. The second phase of the Hungarian deportations occurred at the same time as the Russian assault and the advancing stages of the Allied armies after the landings in the West. Normandy harkened back to the nerve-racking days of Dunkirk in...

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Conclusion

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pp. 275-290

German historiography and the status of the Final Solution in historical discourse has varied over the years after the surrender of the Third Reich. Before reunification, German historiography relating to the war were influenced by the postwar geopolitical situation that...

Notes

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pp. 291-324

Works Cited

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pp. 325-346

Index

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pp. 347-364

Back Cover

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