Cover

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Title page, Series page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xii

This is a new book on an old subject: the contest between political parties in regular, free and competitive elections, a contest that underpins most working definitions of representative democracy. Given the vast volume of words already written on...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

This book has been a long time in the making. Many people have sat patiently through conference and seminar presentations and have offered volumes of helpful advice and encouragement. Though some venues may have slipped our minds, we...

Part One: Preliminaries

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Chapter 1. Modeling Multiparty Competition

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pp. 3-14

Politics in modern democracies is largely the politics of representation. It concerns how the needs and desires, the hopes and fears of ordinary citizens affect national decision making at...

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Chapter 2. Spatial Dynamics of Political Competition

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pp. 15-27

Politicians compete with each other in many different ways. They trade on personal popularity; they attack the integrity and character of their opponents. They exploit, or are victims of, biased coverage in the news media. They hire advertising...

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Chapter 3. A Baseline ABM of Party Competition

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pp. 28-55

We just saw that party leaders involved in the complex dynamics of multiparty competition face analytically intractable decision problems. This implies that real party leaders use informal rules of thumb rather than formally provable best response...

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Chapter 4. Systematically Interrogating Agent-Based Models

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pp. 56-82

We have shown that dynamic multiparty competition is analytically intractable, both for third party analysts and for the real politicians involved. This led us to specify a computational agent-based model of multiparty competition, and we...

Part Two: The Basic Model

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Chapter 5. Benchmarking the Baseline Model

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pp. 85-105

Having set out our methods in chapter 4, we are now at last in a position to start investigating multiparty competition using the baseline model we specified in chapter 3. As we said when setting out our plan of campaign, we start simple in this chapter and...

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Chapter 6. Endogenous Parties, Interaction of Different Decision Rules

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pp. 106-131

We have so far made the preposterous assumption that political parties come to us as gifts from God or Nature. We did this to get started in our investigations of party competition, but we all know this is not true. We know that political parties are endogenous...

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Chapter 7. New Decision Rules, New Rule Features

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pp. 132-156

We went far beyond our baseline model of party multiparty competition in the previous chapter, and also beyond much of the existing work in this subject. We did this by modeling the set of competing parties as an endogenous output of, not an...

Part Three: Extensions and Empirics

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Chapter 8. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Decision Rule Selection

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pp. 159-182

Our model of endogenous party birth and death in a dynamic party system uses updated vote share as a measure of party fitness. As we have seen, this creates a “survival-of-the-fittest” evolutionary environment in which fitter parties tend to survive...

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Chapter 9. Nonpolicy Factors in Party Competition

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pp. 183-205

Spatial models of party competition, of their essence, deal with how politicians compete with each other by setting rival policy positions. They are, as we have seen, models of competitive spatial location, where the spaces under consideration are...

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Chapter 10. Party Leaders with Policy Preferences

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pp. 206-227

Up until now we have been modeling a political world where voters care about policy but party leaders completely ignore their own personal policy preferences when they adapt party policy to evolving patterns of voter support. This is also the world...

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Chapter 11. Using Theoretical Models to Analyze Real Party Systems

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pp. 228-257

We build theoretical models to help us understand the world. We call our own model a model of “party competition,” our agents “party leaders” and “voters,” because we believe these artificial constructs do in some meaningful way resemble...

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Chapter 12. In Conclusion

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pp. 258-266

We have come a long way together since the beginning of this book. We started with the twin premises that understanding multiparty competition is a core concern for everyone interested in representative democracy and that we must...

References

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pp. 267-274

Index

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pp. 275-278