COVER

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

TITLE

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

COPYRIGHT

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

CONTENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

TIME LINE OF KEY EVENTS IN THE OTTOMAN ADVANCE

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-11

read more

INTRODUCTION

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-12

IN THE SPRING OF 1453 MEHMED II, the clever and ambitious young sultan of the Ottoman Empire, was laying siege to Constantinople, the still formidable capital of the waning Byzantine Empire. Despite some help from Western European fighters primarily from Venice and Genoa, the Greeks were heavily outnumbered: approximately seven thousand fighting men within the city faced an army of eighty thousand camped without and...

read more

1. CRUSADE AND CHARLEMAGNE: MEDIEVAL INFLUENCES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 13-42

BECAUSE THE MIDDLE AGES WITNESSED the first European responses to Islam, Renaissance humanists naturally turned to this period for inspiration and authority on the subject of the Ottoman Turks, finding such sources as crusade histories, chivalric literature, sermons, and theological works.1 While the humanists' most original contributions to Western perceptions of Muslims may be found in their use of classical exempla, it is...

read more

2. THE NEW BARBARIAN: REDEFINING THE TURKS IN CLASSICAL TERMS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 43-93

HUMANISTS USEDTHE CLASSICAL PAST as a guide for every subject on which they wrote; the Turks and crusade were no exception to this rule. Nor was this engagement with ancient texts a dry, academic exercise involving humanists laboring to extract eloquent turns of phrase or a fitting parallel from literature or history. As Kenneth Gouwens has argued, humanists felt an intimate association, or "active relationship," with the...

read more

3. STRADDLING EAST AND WEST: BYZANTIUM AND GREEK REFUGEES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 94-134

BYZANTIUM PLAYED A CRUCIALROLE in the development of European attitudes toward the Turks and crusade. The empire's history of extensive contact and conflict with Muslim neighbors in the East enabled Byzantines to develop firsthand knowledge about Arabs, Persians, and especially Turks. As such, the Greek Empire functioned as mediator between the...

read more

4. RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES AND INTERPRETATIONS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 135-173

WHILE HUMANISTS FOCUSED MUCH ATTENTION on the Turkish advance as a secular problem, they were also concerned with its impact on the Christian faith. After all, the Turks practiced a faith that was, in many ways, antithetical to Christianity, and crusade was, in theory, a "holy war." From simple descriptions of the Turks as "enemies of the faith" to more...

read more

EPILOGUE: THE RENAISSANCE LEGACY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 174-187

HUMANIST RESPONSES TO THE OTTOMAN advance continued to influence Western views of the Turks and Islam for centuries; even today their impact is felt. In some ways the humanist legacy promoted a greater openness and understanding of Muslim cultures and religion. In other ways its hostile take on the Ottoman Turks only served to nurture incipient ideas of Western superiority to Eastern rivals. In all its richness and diversity humanism...

read more

NOTES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-271

...1. For a detailed account of the siege, see Kenneth Setton, The Papacy andthe Levant (I20S-IS7I) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1978), 2:chap. 4. A highly readable, if somewhat less accurate, account of the siege is toldby Sir Steven Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople I4S3 (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1965). See also Colin Imber, The Ottoman Empire I300-I48I (Is ...

BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 273-299

INDEX

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 301-305

read more

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 307-309

OVER THE YEARS, many people have contributed to the creation and development of this book, from its beginnings at Cornell University to its final completion at Vassar College. I hope they will recognize the unique and positive imprints they have left on the work; I can certainly no longer imagine what this study would look like without all their advice...