Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

CONTENTS

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pp. v-vi

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PREFACE

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pp. vii-xvi

The Dead Sea Scrolls may seem to be an unlikely candidate for inclusion in a series on “biographies” of books. The Scrolls are not in fact one book, but a miscellaneous collection of writings retrieved from caves near Qumran, at the northwest corner of the Dead Sea, between the years 1947 and 1956. In...

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CHAPTER 1 The Discovery of the Scrolls

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pp. 1-32

On April 10, 1948, the Yale University News Bureau released an announcement, which appeared in the major newspapers of the English- speaking world in the following days: The earliest known manuscript of the entire biblical book of Isaiah from the Old Testament has been discovered in Palestine, it was announced...

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CHAPTER 2 The Essenes

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pp. 33-66

Almost immediately after the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, several people concluded independently that they were writings of the Jewish sect of the Essenes, who were described by Philo and Josephus, and briefly by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder. In February 1948, one Ibrahim Sowmy, whose brother was an assistant of the Syrian...

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CHAPTER 3 The Site of Qumran

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pp. 67-95

The ruins of Qumran are located about nine miles south of Jericho, and thirteen miles east of Jerusalem, near the northern end of the Dead Sea. They stand on a marl plateau, with rocky cliffs to the west and a plain to the east. Wadi Qumran is to the south. They had been noted by travelers in the...

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CHAPTER 4 The Scrolls and Christianity

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pp. 96-146

The Dead Sea Scrolls made available for the first time a corpus of literature in Hebrew and Aramaic from Judea around the turn of the era— from the time of Jesus of Nazareth. Much of the fascination that the Scrolls have held for the general public has arisen from the possibility that they might contain information pertinent...

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CHAPTER 5 The Scrolls and Judaism

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pp. 147-184

When the Scrolls first came to light, scholars were mainly impressed by the difference between the worldview they disclosed and that of traditional, rabbinic, Judaism. Most striking was a passage in the Community Rule, which became known as the Instruction on the Two Spirits: From the God of Knowledge...

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CHAPTER 6 The Scrolls and the Bible

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pp. 185-212

The initial announcement of the Dead Sea Scrolls in April 1948 had trumpeted the discovery of the earliest known manuscript of the entire Book of Isaiah, and noted that it was older than any other complete Hebrew manuscript of the book by about a thousand years. W. F. Albright promptly predicted...

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CHAPTER 7 The Battle for the Scrolls

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pp. 213-242

The publication of the Scrolls had slowed to a trickle after 1960. By then, several members of the editorial team had dispersed— some, like Cross and Strugnell, to demanding academic positions. By 1972, some signs of impatience were beginning to appear. At the behest of Geza Vermes, professor of Jewish Studies at Oxford, Oxford University Press...

APPENDIX Personalities in the Discovery and Subsequent Controversies

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pp. 243-246

NOTES

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pp. 247-258

GLOSSARY

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pp. 259-262

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 263-264

INDEXES

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pp. 265-272