Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. 12-15

It was with genuine sadness that Indonesianists and Indonesians alike reflected on the passing of the anthropologist and humanist Clifford Geertz in late October of 2006. Even though he had long since moved beyond Java and Bali and embraced far broader horizons, there was a sense among Indonesianists that, whether we agreed with his ideas or not, he was...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

The seeds of this project were sown during a three-year fellowship in Leiden and have finally germinated not so far from Nassau Street, Princeton. Some of the ideas, since altered or elaborated, have come out in various venues over the past seven years, notably at seminars held...

Abbreviations and Archival Referents

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pp. xvii-xx

Part One: Inspiration, Rememoration, Reform

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Chapter One: Remembering Islamization, 1300–1750

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pp. 3-24

Seen from above, the great archipelagic world of Indonesia, the scene of much of what follows in this book, drifts eastward from the Bay of Bengal into the Pacific Ocean. The Malay Peninsula, too, has long been an integral part of this world. Its ports, and those of the mainland from the Gulf of Thailand to southern China, were tightly linked to...

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Chapter Two: Embracing a New Curriculum, 1750–1800

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pp. 25-39

Compared to Aceh, Banten, and Mataram, we know little of the argumentation in the other, often warring, Muslim states of the eastern half of the archipelago, though it seems to have followed the lead of Sumatra. Makassarese legends claim, for example, that it was...

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Chapter Three: Reform and the Widening Muslim Sphere, 1800–1890

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pp. 40-64

We have now seen how, by the late eighteenth century, leading Jawi scholars were tapping into the ascendant “Meccan” discourse reaffirming Ghazalian norms that segregated law and mysticism. Some were in addition enabling orthodox forms of Islam, embodied by...

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Part Two: Power in Quest of Knowledge

Thus far this book has questioned the oft-posited relationship between tariqa Sufism and conversion to Islam in Southeast Asia. I have suggested that we do not have clear evidence that the one was the necessary engine for the other. Rather, Sufism appears (and then frequently reappears) as a doctrinal issue raised in periods when the orthodoxy of the state needed to be realigned to conform to “Meccan” standards....

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Chapter Four: Foundational Visions of Indies Islam, 1600–1800

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pp. 67-84

Dutch interest in the East Indies can be perhaps best understood as a consequence of the subjugation of the Dutch by the Habsburgs, whose trading interests linked the azure waters of the Philippines with the leaden skies of the Low Countries. In the aftermath of...

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Chapter Five: New Regimes of Knowledge, 1800–1865

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pp. 85-100

Leiden University is rightly famous today for its holdings of Islamic manuscripts. Its Indonesian collection has had an uneven history, however, rather like that of the Dutch tropical venture at large. One leading Dutch historian has argued that efforts to provide colonial officials with a working knowledge of local languages and cultures proceeded...

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Chapter Six: Seeking the Counterweight Church, 1837–1889

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pp. 101-122

While the state was founding its training schools for aspiring colonial officials, travel writing and book collecting by churchmen-scientists continued, whose disdain for Islam was all too apparent even when they did communicate something new. This may be gathered...

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Part Three: Orientalism Engaged

The last three chapters provided a general overview of the early encounter between Dutch interlopers in the archipelago and their Muslim rivals, showing how metropolitan scholarship and observation on the ground were neither of one accord nor yet reliably apprised...

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Chapter Seven: Distant Musings on a Crucial Colony, 1882–1888

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pp. 125-146

Among the papers bequeathed to Leiden University after Snouck Hurgronje’s death is a file now designated Or. 7935. Like other such folders its contents are diverse, ranging from a prayer for Queen Wilhelmina (r. 1890–1948) written for the regents of...

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Chapter Eight: Collaborative Encounters, 1889–1892

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pp. 147-161

It has been argued that in the process of inventing the category of World Religions, and of including Buddhism within that framework, the European textual archive came to...

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Chapter Nine: Shadow Muftis, Christian Modern, 1892–1906

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pp. 162-174

Writing on the very eve of the Cilegon uprising, Sayyid

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Part Four: Sufi Pasts, Modern Futures

The last three chapters observed Snouck at work in the Netherlands, in Arabia, and in the Indies, and provided an overview of his critiques and interventions. On the basis of his reading of missionary reports, he began to...

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Chapter Ten: From Sufism to Salafism, 1905–1911

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pp. 177-189

When Snouck Hurgronje left the Netherlands Indies in 1906, there was as yet nothing known in this land of Reformism or Modernism, the newer religious movements within Islam. During his seventeen-year Indonesian stay, Snouck Hurgronje knew...

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Chapter Eleven: Advisors to Indonesië, 1906–1919

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pp. 190-208

In his pseudonymous letters of a pensioned wedono, Snouck Hurgronje had insisted, as any respectable Muslim scholar would, that a genuine Sufi was to be known by his pedigree. The wedono, however, said nothing about that same individual’s representing a danger to...

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Chapter Twelve: Hardenings and Partings, 1919–1942

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pp. 209-232

Not all elements of the national movement were as “modern” (or as patient) as the Kaum Muda of Sumatra. In 1916, this newly established Padang branch of Sarekat Islam would swiftly divide between the heirs to Ahmad Khatib and those affiliated with the traditional elite and their (new) Sufi allies led by the Naqshbandi Khatib 1 Two key incidents would mortally wound...

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Conclusion

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pp. 233-236

It is my hope that this book will make a meaningful contribution to the study of Islam in Southeast Asia and to broader scholarship on the Muslim World. I have questioned the current consensus on the essence of Indonesia’s religious formation by highlighting assumptions formed during...

Glossary

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pp. 237-242

Notes

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pp. 243-286

Index

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pp. 287-303