Cover

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Frontmatter

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CONTENTS

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pp. v-vi

PART I: INTRODUCTION

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CHAPTER 1: The Paradoxes of Terrorism

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pp. 3-8

TERRORISM as a contemporary phenomenon teems with paradoxes. For at least three decades, many who have studied it have regarded it as the “conflict for our time” (Clutterbuck, 1977, p. 13). Yet the same author who advertised it in those words also regarded it as “rooted in history” (ibid., p. 22), to be found in military, political, and religious annals since classical times. Despite this duality of vision, it is true that terrorism has irregularly emerged as the world's...

PART II: CAUSES AND DYNAMICS

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CHAPTER 2: Conditions and Causes of Terrorism

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pp. 11-53

IN THE LAST DECADE of the nineteenth century, Émile Durkheim, one of the founders of sociology, launched his campaign to establish the field as a science (Durkheim, 1958 [1893]). He was a positivist, insisting on the independent significance of social facts (institutions, rates of behavior, collective sentiments). Among the scientific tenets he propounded was the principle that an observed social fact (for example, a group suicide rate) has a single cause that produces that effect...

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CHAPTER 3: Ideological Bases of Terrorist Behavior

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pp. 54-89

EARLIER I asserted that almost all behavior that has been identified as terrorist is associated with extremist social movements based on extremist ideological beliefs. Wilkinson went even further: “every internal terrorist movement or group requires an extremist ideology of some kind to nourish, motivate, justify, and mobilize the use of terror violence” (1988, p. 95). There are good social science reasons why such statements...

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CHAPTER 4: Motivation, Social Origins, Recruitment, Groups, Audiences, and the Media in the Terrorism Process

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pp. 90-120

THE FOREGOING CHAPTER on ideology focused on a key variable essential for understanding the motive forces for terrorism. A core feature emerged: ideology is simultaneously cultural and psychological in significance. It is above all a cultural construction that both invites and shapes individual motivations as it becomes accepted or appreciated by members of terrorist groups and their surrounding body of sympathizers and supporters...

PART III: CONSEQUENCES AND CONTROL

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CHAPTER 5: Anticipating, Experiencing, and Responding to Terrorist Attacks

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pp. 123-159

AT THIS JUNCTURE we turn the analysis around. In the first four chapters we looked at terrorism from the standpoints of its conditions, causes, and ideology, as well as the several additional forces that motivate terrorist individuals and groups. Now we shift to the targets of terrorism—groups and societies under attack. We will consider, sequentially, what it means to be vulnerable to or fearful of attacks; what it is to be attacked...

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CHAPTER 6: Discouraging Terrorism

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pp. 160-199

DISCOURAGING terrorism, the subject of this chapter, overlaps with the idea of responding to it, the topic of the previous chapter. Proper preparation and training of the population for attacks and equipping and training first responders help make terrorist attacks less damaging, thus indirectly discouraging them. It is appropriate, however, to treat the topic of discouragement in its own right, because it includes so many additional facets...

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CHAPTER 7: The Long-Term International Context of Terrorism

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pp. 200-228

THE LONG-TERM significance of international terrorism for the United States and other countries cannot be treated in isolation from the broadest social, economic, political, and cultural situation of the world as it presents itself. Terrorism as a specific form of conflict is simultaneously an expression and a microcosm of that situation, and its likely future cannot be estimated without reference to the larger scene...

APPENDIX: The Infernal Problems of Definition and Designation

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pp. 229-250

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. 251-252

REFERENCES

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pp. 253-272

INDEX

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pp. 273-285