Cover

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Title

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Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-x

THIS BOOK grew out of my strong sense that emerging in Middle East studies was a fundamentally new way of thinking about the implications for women of the projects of modernity. This new thinking was enabled by the mature scholarship on “the woman question” that had been developing over the last two decades, scholarship characterized by fine historical research, critical social analysis of the contemporary scene, and intense intellectual debate...

Note on Transliterations

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction: Feminist Longings and Postcolonial Conditions

Lila Abu-Lughod

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pp. 3-32

IN TURKEY, the fabulously popular transsexual singer Bülent Ersoy, known for her seductive poses and low-cut dresses, is now voicing her desire to become a good Muslim woman.1 In Iran, the Islamic Republic turned the chador, worn by some feminists in antishah demonstrations, into a mandatory form of dress. In Egypt, progressive intellectuals feel threatened by the public repentance of born-again movie stars...

PART ONE: REWRITING FEMINIST BEGINNINGS: THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

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Chapter 1 Women, Medicine, and Power in Nineteenth-Century Egypt

Khaled Fahmy

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pp. 35-72

IN 1825 a certain Dr. Antoine-Barthélemy Clot, a French doctor from Marseilles, arrived in Cairo answering a request from Mehmed Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt, to organize the country’s medical system. Two years later Dr. Clot succeeded in founding a modern medical school attached to an impressive new hospital that he also founded in Abu Za'bal at the northern outskirts of Cairo...

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Chapter 2 'A’isha Taymur’s Tears and the Critique of the Modernist and the Feminist Discourses on Nineteenth-Century Egypt

Mervat Hatem

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pp. 73-88

Early feminist writers and modernist historians have attached social importance to 'A’isha Taymur’s emergence as one of the leading women poets of nineteenth-century Egypt. One feminist writer described her as the “avantgarde of feminist awakening” (tali'at al-yaqaza al-nisawiyya).1 A modernist historian gave her the parallel distinction of being a member of “the avantgarde of social and literary renaissance...

PART TWO: MOTHERS, WIVES, AND CITIZENS: THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

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Chapter 3 Crafting an Educated Housewife in Iran

Afsaneh Najmabadi

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pp. 91-125

SEVERAL recent writings on women in the turn-of-the-century Middle East have noted the centrality of motherhood and wifehood, particularly their regulation through textbooks of domestic sciences, to the discussions of the notion of “woman” in this period.1 Whether it is argued that women themselves used this modernization and scientization to improve their status in society, or...

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Chapter 4 Schooled Mothers and Structured Play: Child Rearing in Turn-of-the-Century Egypt

Omnia Shakry

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pp. 126-170

THIS ESSAY attempts to explore some of the conjunctures and disjunctures between European colonial and metropolitan discourses and indigenous modernizing and nationalist discourses on women and mothering in turn-of-the- century Egypt. Tracing the proliferation of debates on motherhood and proper child rearing through a number of scientific-literary and religious journals...

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Chapter 5 The Egyptian Lives of Jeanne d’Arc

Marilyn Booth

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pp. 171-212

IF YOU WERE a consumer of women’s magazines in Egypt, 1922, you might well pick up an issue of the Magazine of the Women’s Awakening. You would immediately encounter two framing declarations on the magazine’s front cover: “Awaken your women, and your nations will live”; and “Nations are made by men, and men by mothers.” If you were reading the November 1922 issue...

PART THREE: ISLAMISM, MODERNISM, AND FEMINISMS: THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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Chapter 6 Eluding the Feminist, Overthrowing the Modern? Transformations in Twentieth-Century Iran

Zohreh T. Sullivan

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pp. 215-242

THE Shaykh Fazl Allah Nuri Expressway cuts through modern Tehran. Five minutes away from the newly named Azadi (Freedom) Square, it intersects with the Jalal al-Ahmad Highway that goes past the Ali Shariati Hospital, the College of Commerce and Administrative Sciences, and the College of Educational Sciences. Shaykh Fazl Allah Nuri was the charismatic conservative cleric who positioned himself against Western modernity and...

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Chapter 7 The Marriage of Feminism and Islamism in Egypt: Selective Repudiation as a Dynamic of Postcolonial Cultural Politics

Lila Abu-Lughod

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pp. 243-269

IN THE CONTEXT of her analysis of the East/West dialectic that has secured the veil as a loaded symbolic marker of cultural identity and women’s status in the contemporary Muslim world, Leila Ahmed has argued that “[c]olonialism’s use of feminism to promote the culture of the colonizers and undermine native culture has ever since imparted to feminism in non-Western societies the taint of having served as an instrument of colonial domination..

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Afterword: Some Awkward Questions on Women and Modernity in Turkey

Deniz Kandiyoti

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pp. 270-288

IN THE CLOSING sections of his epic novel, War and Peace, Tolstoy waxes lyrical about the transformation undergone by the romantic heroine, Natasha, following matrimony and motherhood. Shunning society and all her previous accomplishments, she devotes herself entirely to her husband and children. It is sufficient for her husband to mention his agreement with Rousseau’s views on the unnatural and deleterious effects of wet nurses for Natasha to insist on breast-feeding her babies, despite her delicate constitution and against everyone’s advice...

Contributors

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pp. 289-290

Index

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pp. 291-300