Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Tables and Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

This book is a sequel to The Evolution of Cooperation (Axelrod 1984). That book had a single paradigm and a simple theme. The paradigm was the two-person iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. The theme was that cooperation based upon reciprocity can evolve and sustain itself even among egoists provided there is sufficient prospect of a long-term interaction...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-9

The title of this book illustrates the dual purposes of the volume. One meaning of “The Complexity of Cooperation” refers to the addition of complexity to the most common framework for studying cooperation, namely the two-person iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Adding complexity to that framework allows the exploration of many interesting and important features of competition and collaboration that are beyond the reach of the Prisoner’s Dilemma paradigm...

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1 Evolving New Strategies

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pp. 10-29

This chapter began with a hammer and a nail. The nail was a problem I wanted to solve. The hammer was a tool I wanted to try out that looked well suited to driving my nail. The problematic nail was the question of whether the success of the TIT FOR TAT strategy in my computer tournaments depended in large part on the prior beliefs of the people who submitted strategies about what the other submissions would be like...

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2 Coping with Noise

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pp. 30-39

The danger of people or nations misunderstanding each other’s actions has been a long-term interest of mine. Ever since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, I have been concerned that errors in perception or implementation could lead to serious conflict. As a child, I was deeply impressed with the fairy tale of a little boy who came across two dozing giants. He hit one of them on the head...

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3 Promoting Norms

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pp. 40-68

My long-standing interest in norms was piqued by an anecdote that I included in The Evolution of Cooperation (Axelrod 1984, 84–85). It was one of the many stories from the trench warfare of World War I in which the two sides showed restraint based upon reciprocity in what they called “the live and let live system.” But this particular episode went further than most...

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4 Choosing Sides

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pp. 69-94

My interest in how political actors choose sides goes back at least to my days in graduate school in the 1960’s. For example, my Ph.D. dissertation on conflict of interest included a chapter on coalition formation in parliamentary democracies. The basic idea was that political parties of differing ideologies might have to work together to attain a governing majority, but they seek a set of partners that will cause as little political strain as possible...

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5 Setting Standards

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pp. 95-120

Two professors in the Business School at Michigan, Will Mitchell and Robert Thomas, heard me give a talk about my landscape theory with its application to wartime alignments (Chapter 4). They said that it reminded them of strategic alignments between companies. They asked if I would be interested in seeing if the theory worked in a commercial setting...

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6 Building New Political Actors

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pp. 121-144

The immediate origin of this chapter was a concern for how nationstates form. My interest was heightened by the demise of the Soviet Union (the focus of my former policy interests) and Yugoslavia (where I took my honeymoon in 1982). Just what accounts for how large numbers of people sometimes come to live together successfully, and sometimes fail to do so?...

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7 Disseminating Culture

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pp. 145-180

This chapter deals with the fundamental question of how we become who we are through our interactions with others. The immediate origin of this chapter is similar to the motivation of the previous chapter: a desire to understand how nations emerge. In the previous chapter, I focused on threats and wars as mechanisms for the development of new political actors...

Appendix A

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pp. 181-205

Appendix B

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pp. 206-222

Index

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pp. 223-232