Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword

Ronald L. Numbers

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pp. vii-xvi

Until fairly recently the notion of a history of creationism in Europe would have struck many readers as preposterous. Although the United States had become notorious for spawning creationism, the rest of the world seemed relatively immune. As the late Stephen Jay Gould assured non-Americans in 2000, creationism, though “insidious,” had remained confined to the United States; indeed, in...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xx

The editors acknowledge the financial support of Ghent University toward the organization of the workshop in November 2011 that marked the start of this project and toward the funding of Stefaan Blancke’s research. We also acknowledge FWO Flanders for Stefaan Blancke’s short research stay in May 2012 at Aarhus University. We thank the contributors to the workshop and the book for their...

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Introduction: Creationism in Europe or European Creationism?

Stefaan Blancke, Hans Henrik Hjermitslev, and Peter C. Kjærgaard

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pp. 1-14

On October 4, 2007, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe passed Resolution 1580, which issued a serious warning. Creationists across the European continent were adopting a model originating in North America to target education at all levels. The council cautioned of “a real risk of serious confusion being introduced into our children’s minds between what has to do with...

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1 France

Thomas Lepeltier

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pp. 15-30

In their book The Creationists: A Threat to French Society?, Cyrille Baudouin and Olivier Brosseau argue that, in France, even when you are a creationist, “it is better not to appear as such.”1 Outspoken critics of creationism, Baudouin and Brosseau denounce as biblical creationists or supporters of intelligent design certain individuals who deny that they are creationists. If it is true that French...

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2 Spain and Portugal

Jesús I. Catalá-Gorgues

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pp. 31-49

Spain and Portugal share several social and historical traits. Both countries are chiefly Catholic, and matters about the political significance of the church have marked their contemporary history. In Western Europe, only the Iberian countries have been governed by fascist regimes after World War II, and both established their present democratic systems almost simultaneously in the 1970s....

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3 United Kingdom

Joachim Allgaier

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pp. 50-64

The United Kingdom is a unitary state that consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. It is an active member of the European Union, but it is not part of the European Economic and Monetary Union. The United Kingdom is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

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4 The Low Countries

Stefaan Blancke, Abraham C. Flipse, and Johan Braeckman

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pp. 65-84

In 2009 the world celebrated the Darwin year. In the Low Countries too, the two-hundredth anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birthday and the one-hundred- fiftieth anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species were commemorated by countless events, exhibits, and publications. In Belgium, these celebrations did not inspire a public debate, let alone religious protest. In the...

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5 Scandinavia

Hans Henrik Hjermitslev and Peter C. Kjærgaard

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pp. 85-104

The Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, are closely connected historically, culturally, and linguistically. They are also, according to polls, among the nations in which most people accept the theory of evolution. In 2005, for example, the European Commission’s Eurobarometer Survey 63.1 concluded that 83 percent of the Danes, 82 percent of the Swedes, and 74 percent of the Norwegians agreed with the statement, “Human beings, as we know them...

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6 Germany

Ulrich Kutschera

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pp. 105-124

Surveys of public opinions indicate that most Germans accept evolution. In the frequently cited poll by Miller, Scott, and Okamoto, more than 70 percent of the Germans responded that evolution may be true, whereas slightly more than 20 percent believed that it is probably or definitely false. A recent Ipsos Mori poll found that 12 percent subscribed to a creationist view on human evolution,...

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7 Poland

Bartosz Borczyk

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pp. 125-143

Around 2005, two independent polls contained data about the acceptance of evolution in Poland. The first one was part of a worldwide survey, the results of which were summarized in Science, a leading journal. The second one was restricted to Poland only. Both surveys showed that approximately 30 percent of Poles did not accept evolution, and of those who did, most regarded it as a process...

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8 Greece

Efthymios Nicolaidis

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pp. 144-161

After the East-West schism of Christianity, officially proclaimed in 1054, the Eastern Orthodox Church was led by the patriarch of Constantinople, considered as the primus inter pares of the Eastern patriarchs. The history of this church can thus be traced in the cultural context of Byzantium, until the gradual separation of the Russian Church, which became officially independent in...

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9 Russia and Its Neighbors

Inga Levit, Georgy S. Levit, Uwe Hossfeld, and Lennart Olsson

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pp. 162-179

Creationism in Russia and in what is commonly called the “Russian-speaking world” exhibits some distinctive features. In this chapter, we outline the situation in Russia and two of its neighboring states, Ukraine and Belarus, and specify the role of the Orthodox Church and of Protestant movements in the growth of creationism in this region. We have singled out Ukraine and Belarus for inclusion...

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10 Turkey

Martin Riexinger

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pp. 180-198

Although only 3 percent of Turkey’s land area falls within Europe, and although more than 99 percent of its population of 73.7 million are at least formally Muslim, there are good reasons to include a case study on this country in a book on the history of creationism in Europe. The predecessor of the Turkish Republic, the Ottoman Empire has belonged to the European system of powers since...

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11 Catholicism

Rafael A. Martínez and Thomas F. Glick

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pp. 199-213

In the historiography of the controversies over evolution, no phenomenon called “Catholic creationism” appears explicitly. Ronald Numbers, in his classical work of 1992, The Creationists, mentions Catholicism (in America) but once, alluding to an attempt to establish a group “in favor of creation and against evolution,” which soon dissolved for lack of members. In Europe especially, the common...

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12 Intelligent Design

Barbara Forrest

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pp. 214-227

Since the late 1980s, American creationism has included the concept of intelligent design, a variant of creationism that has been shaped by creationists’ consistent defeats in American federal courts. The Discovery Institute (DI), a Seattle, Washington, think tank, promotes intelligent design according to its “Wedge strategy,” which is outlined in what is now widely known in the United States...

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13 The Rise of Anti-creationism in Europe

Peter C. Kjærgaard

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pp. 228-241

The increasing activism among European creationists has not gone unnoticed. Widespread media coverage of evolution debates has turned the alleged antagonistic relationship between science and religion, and the implication of a necessary choice between scientific knowledge and faith, into a standard narrative familiar to the general European public. Polls juxtaposing evolution and creation,...

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Afterword: Reclaiming Science for Creationism

Nicolaas A. Rupke

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pp. 242-250

In bringing this collection of essays on creationism in Europe to a close, I propose to focus on the question, Why did creationists do so well in the decades following World War II? What is the reason that creationist theory has been given the wide acceptance we have witnessed over the past half century or more, not just in North America, but also in Europe? How are we to understand the fact...

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A Note on Sources

Stefaan Blancke

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pp. 251-256

The main reason for publishing this book was that we found that the literature lacked a much-needed coherent study of creationism in Europe. This does not mean, however, that the topic has been completely neglected. In recent years, the group of scholars studying or discussing the issue has grown gradually larger, resulting in more publications, both in local or national venues and in international...

List of Contributors

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pp. 257-264

Index

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pp. 265-276