Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xi-xiv

This project has gone through many phases since 2004, when I first began researching it. I could not have gotten this far without the intellectual, practical, financial, and emotional support of many people. John Carlos Rowe has been a never-ending source of advice and support. Sarah...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-30

In his 1867 poem “When I heard the Learn’d Astronomer,” Walt Whitman rejects the academic structure of American education, which was undergoing a sea change in the period following the Civil War. The poem’s speaker becomes “tired and sick” after hearing a popular lecture on astronomy and...

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1. On Autobiography, Boy Scouts, and Citizenship: Revisiting Charles Eastman’s Deep Woods

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pp. 31-66

Educational efforts to assimilate American Indians took place roughly between 1879–-when Captain Richard Henry Pratt opened the Carlisle Indian Industrial School—and 1924, when the US government finally granted them citizenship rights. Carlisle was the first of many boarding...

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2. The Scenes of Seeing: Frances Benjamin Johnstonand Visualizations of the “Indian” in Black, White,and Native Educational Contexts

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pp. 67-98

Chapter 1 argues that Charles Eastman’s educational autobiography, From the Deep Woods to Civilization, reveals his ambivalent embrace of the civic republican ideology he internalized at assimilationist boarding schools. It also demonstrates how in his procitizenship essays and...

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3. Curricular Cosmopolitans: W. E. B. Du Bois and Jane Addams

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pp. 99-132

As chapter 2 demonstrates, Frances Benjamin Johnston’s symbolization of the “Indian” at Hampton—as well as at other institutions—evokes the teleological structure of social Darwinist ideology. Hampton is also famous for being the school that Booker T. Washington attended and...

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4. Educating the Ostjuden: Abraham Cahan and Gesturesof Resistance

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pp. 133-166

As chapter 3 demonstrates, Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois defined success differently: Washington viewed it as freedom from material cares, whereas Du Bois envisioned it in terms of intellectual freedom. While both educators projected these ideas of success onto their students...

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5. Emma Goldman, the Modern School, and the Politicsof Reproduction

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pp. 167-192

Emma Goldman begins her autobiography, Living My Life (1931), not with the story of her childhood in Russia or her immigration to the United States but rather with the tale of her dramatic exodus from a traditional Jewish marriage at the age of twenty. Announcing that her “entire possessions...

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Conclusion

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pp. 193-206

This book has examined the role that progressive educational practices played in cultivating US citizenship between 1880 and 1920. Focusing on both educational archives and autobiographical accounts of citizenship education, the book illustrates how the practices of citizenship education...

Notes

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pp. 207-256

Index

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pp. 257-265