Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, About the Author

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

Maps and Chart

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xxviii

Historians are often captives of their times, affected by both the documents available during the era in which they write and their own limited learning curve in making sense of the records left behind. Sometimes, however, historians get lucky and live long enough to rewrite what...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxix-xxxii

I thank Robert Odawi Porter, president of the Seneca Nation from 2010 to 2012, and the Seneca Nation Tribal Council for encouraging me to undertake this project. I especially acknowledge the help of Wendy Huff, the former executive director of the Seneca Nation of Indians’ Kinzua Dam...

Abbreviations

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pp. xxxiii-xxxiv

PART I. Introduction

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pp. 1-2

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1. The Seneca Nation of Indians: Diversity and Adaptation

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pp. 3-18

From 1972 to 1985, I spent most of my research time doing fieldwork, interviewing and learning from Senecas at the Cattaraugus Territory (Ga´dägësgëö´). I would visit the reservation in June at the Strawberry Festival and in September during the annual fall festival, where I would...

PART II. Origins

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pp. 19-20

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2. Federal Policies: Termination

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pp. 21-33

Calvin "Kelly" John, a highly decorated war hero who received two Bronze Stars, was one of those Senecas who returned home from the war in 1945. A year later, this twenty-five-year-old battle-tested veteran from Allegany ran for the presidency of the Seneca Nation of Indians at the urging...

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3. Empire State Policies: The Thruway

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pp. 34-48

In the mid-1970s, I would visit the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation several times a year and stay over at the home of the late Pauline Lay Seneca, a well-respected Cayuga elder who lived along State Road 438, which traverses this Seneca community. Because numerous Cayugas had...

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4. Keystone State Policies: Power Trip

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pp. 49-78

The Kinzua Dam was the third crisis that the Seneca Nation of Indians faced in the post–World War II era. Although Pennsylvania politicians and corporate leaders were directly behind this effort to construct the dam, both federal and New York State officials were to play significant...

PART III. The Impact of Kinzua

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pp. 79-80

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5. George Heron, the Kinzua Planning Committee, and the Haley Act

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pp. 81-103

On Ma y 26, 2011, George Heron, the Allegany Seneca who twice served as president of the Seneca Nation during the Kinzua crisis, died at the age of ninety-two. Heron had also served as the chairman of the Kinzua Planning Committee, which had helped rebuild the Seneca Nation of Indians...

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6. The Iroquoia Project and Its Legacies: Failure?

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pp. 104-122

When coming to south western New York, I made it a point to stop by the tribal offices in the Plummer building on the Allegany Indian Reservation and pay a visit to Rovena Abrams, the longtime public-affairs officer who has served as editor of the Seneca Nation of Indians’ Official...

Image Plates

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pp. 123-142

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7. The Health Action Group: Lionel John and the Power of Women

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pp. 143-162

The Senecas' success in improving health care came about during the era of Robert “Bob” Hoag, who was elected president of the Seneca Nation in 1974, 1978, and 1986 and treasurer in 1976, 1980, and 1988. Lionel R. John, who had been one of the Seneca Nation’s tribal councilors...

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8. Showdown on the Forbidden Path

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pp. 163-186

The Kinzua project had other affects on the Seneca Nation besides the large loss of Seneca lands in the upper Allegany River valley. The Senecas’ immediate concern for tribal survival delayed the nation’s filing of litigation on long-standing land claims. It also delayed tribal efforts to...

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9. One Win, One Loss: Seneca Land Claims

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pp. 187-205

The crisis over the Southern Tier Expressway from 1962 to 1985 was to push the Seneca Nation of Indians in another direction. It was to give impetus to its pursuit of land claims litigation in federal courts. The Senecas now sought the return of lands at Cuba Lake and on Grand Island...

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10. The Salamanca Albatross

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pp. 206-223

At the May 18, 1963, House Subcommittee on Indian Affairs hearing at Allegany Territory, Carl Zaprowski, a forty-seven-year-old non-Indian motel operator in Salamanca, testified that he favored the dam project since he believed that his business would be enhanced by flooding Seneca...

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11. Smoke Shops to Casinos

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pp. 224-264

Throughout the 1970s, the Senecas on both residential territories faced myriad serious economic problems—few employment opportunities, undervalued leases, limited entrepreneurial and educational skills, and growing dependence on federal and state grants and programs...

PART IV. Conclusion

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pp. 265-266

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12. Looking Ahead Seven Generations

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pp. 267-276

In 2013, the Senecas live in the shadow of land losses that occurred in the postwar era. It is important to point out that the generation that grew up from childhood in the two decades after World War II are still in major political offices of the nation. For them, the past is a present reality...

Notes

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pp. 277-340

Bibliography

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pp. 341-378

Index

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pp. 379-415

Back Cover

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