Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

ANYONE WHO HAS READ THE HISTORY OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE CANNOT fail to be fascinated by the campaign of Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne. The story evokes pictures in the mind's eye: scarlet-coated Englishmen; the green and blue uniforms of the German mercenaries; the flash of brass and silver and steel accoutrements; the swarms of Indians in their war paint; the whole moving through the green forests or sailing the blue waters of lakes and rivers...

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Prologue

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pp. 1-6

IF GEORGE WASHINGTON AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES HAD BEEN TOLD THE American history books would have contained sections entitled: "The American Revolution: 1763 to 1789" they would have been amazed. Washington remarked on his return to his farm at the end of the Seven Years' War that "we are much rejoiced at the prospect of peace which 'tis hoped will be of long continuance"...

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One / The War Begins: 1775

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pp. 7-15

IN 1842 CAPTAIN LEVI PRESTON, A NINETY-ONE YEAR OLD VETERAN OF THE War of Independence, was interviewed by the historian, Mellen Chamberlain: Captain Preston, it turned out, had never read Sydney or Locke, never drunk tea, nor did he recall ever having seen a stamp. But he was very explicit about why he had fought...

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Two / The American Secretary

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pp. 16-30

ENGLAND'S MILITARY SYSTEM WAS ENTIRELY CONSISTENT WITH EIGHTEENTH century rationalism. Because weapons systems were not very destructive and because economic considerations limited the size of armies, the eighteenth century accepted war as a necessary element in the international order of things...

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Three / Dress Rehearsal: 1776

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pp. 31-48

William Howe does not get high marks for brilliance in the history of the War of Independence, but this is as clear and concise a statement of the military problem as was ever expressed by an English or ministerial leader. The day before Howe wrote his dispatch the American Secretary had issued instructions to his brother, Admiral Lord Richard Howe...

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Four / Crisis in New Jersey

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pp. 49-65

IT WAS PERHAPS THE DARKEST HOUR OF THE WAR. EVEN IF THE REMNANT OF the forces under Lee and Heath joined him Washington's army could count less than 10,000 men. Already, on December 1, some militia enlistments had expired and many more were simply walking out of camp and going home. The Continental troops would end their term of service on the last day of the year...

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Five / Arms and Men

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pp. 66-86

THE CREATION OF THE AMERICAN ARMY MARKED A MILESTONE IN THE HISTORY of modern warfare. Until 1775 eighteenth century wars were fought by relatively small armies composed of highly trained soldiers. The American army, of necessity, was made up of citizen soldiers who were mustered into the ranks, given the barest minimum of training, and often sent almost immediately into battle...

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Six / Germain and the Generals

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pp. 87-101

THE BRITISH PLAN OF CAMPAIGN FOR 1777 WAS QUITE SIMPLY AN EXTENSION and elaboration of the campaign of 1776. It did not originate with any particular person nor did it contain any startling new ideas. From the point of view of Lord George Germain, at least, it commended itself because it would be coordinated so as to lend maximum effectiveness to British military power in North America, and...

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Seven / The Suppression of the Loyalists

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pp. 102-113

IN APRIL, 1776, THE BALTIMORE COUNCIL OF SAFETY ORDERED A DETACHMENT of militia to Annapolis to arrest Governor Robert Eden on the charge of giving aid to the enemy. Major Mordecai Gist, the detachment commander, reported to the State Council of Safety before proceeding with his mission. That august body sent the detachment back to Baltimore and shortly afterward issued a reprimand to the Baltimore council chairman...

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Eight / The Northern Invasion

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pp. 114-128

FOR THE THIRD TIME IN TWO YEARS JOHN BURGOYNE CAME TO NORTH AMERICA. He had achieved the hope of every general, an independent command, and orders for a campaign that would make him a national hero. England was tired of the Howes and Clinton, commanders whose campaigns were unlucky and inconclusive...

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Nine / The Gathering Storm

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pp. 129-145

AS HE PAUSED ON THE HUDSON, PREPARING HIS ARMY FOR THE FINAL DRIVE on Albany, Burgoyne was confident. Ticonderoga had fallen and the enemy was scattered into the hills of Vermont. Only Schuyler's little army, not much more than half his own numbers, stood in his way, and it appeared doubtful if they intended to stand and fight...

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Ten / Saratoga: The First Battle

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pp. 146-162

THE MORE OF HISTORY THAT WE READ THE MORE IT IS APPARENT THAT HEROES must to a considerable degree be endowed with what the eighteenth century called presence and what today is called image. Suppose that George Washington had been short, dumpy, and bald and John Adams had been six feet two and a splendid horseman...

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Eleven / Philadelphia Takes Howe

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pp. 163-178

IF SIR HENRY CLINTON WAS BAFFLED AND DISBELIEVING OVER GENERAL HOWE'S decision to take ship for Pennsylvania, George Washington was completely disconcerted. Even after the British fleet was reported in Delaware Bay Washington professed...

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Twelve / Saratoga: The Forlorn Hope

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pp. 179-191

ON THE UPPER HUDSON THE AUTUMN AIR WAS BRINGING A CHILL TO BURGOYNE'S army. Parties of Americans hovered just beyond the lines, and "not a night passed without firing, and sometimes concerted attacks on our picquets .... By being habituated to fire, our soldiers became indifferent to it, and were capable of eating and sleeping when it was very near them .... " It may have been so...

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Thirteen / Stalemate

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pp. 192-212

TO THOSE WHO SOUGHT TO COMPARE WASHINGTON TO THE ROMAN GENERAL, Fabius, who carefully kept his army out of reach of the enemy, the weeks following the battle at Chadd's Ford posed a serious contradiction. For he continued to seek out the enemy and he called at least one council of war to suggest an attack on Philadelphia...

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Fourteen / Epilogue: The French Alliance

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pp. 213-222

TWO YEARS HAS PASSED SINCE GEORGE III HAD DECLARED BEFORE PARLIAMENT his intention to "put a speedy end to these disorders by the most decisive exertions." Since that time the colonies had declared independence and created an army to resist the authority of the Crown. One of the results of the campaign of 1777 was a document...

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Fifteen / The Campaign of 1777: Success and Failure

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pp. 223-230

THE STORY OF THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777 IS DOMINATED BY THE PERSONALITIES OF five men: Lord George Germain, Sir William Howe, John Burgoyne, George Washington, and Horatio Gates. Some histories, especially biographies, have been centered on the "great man" theory, that is, that the great events and epochs of history have been caused or decisively shaped by great men...

Notes

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pp. 231-252

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Bibliographical Essay

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pp. 253-255

In any research project the writer always has at hand a few basic works that provide handy reference and enable him to preserve a properly broad perspective. Yet these volumes are usually cited infrequently or not at all in the notes on sources. Let it therefore be herewith gratefully acknowledged that the following volumes were always within arm's reach while this study was being prepared...

Index

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pp. 256-268

Image Plates

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pp. 269-276