Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-xviii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xxii

This book has been a long time in the making as I have searched far, wide, and somewhat obsessively for film manifestos over the course of the last few years. I was aided in this Sisyphean task by a great many people who passed on manifestos, provided hard-to-find articles and essays on manifesto movements, helped me track down the diverse and often...

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Introduction. “An Invention without a Future”

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pp. 1-10

Manifestos are typically understood as ruptures, breaks, and challenges to the steady fl ow of politics, aesthetics, or history. This is equally true of film and other moving image manifestos. Paradoxically, film manifestos pervade the history of cinema yet exist at the margins of almost all accounts of film history itself. An examination of this elision raises...

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1. The Avant-Garde(s)

Without a doubt the most prevalent type of film manifesto comes from the cinematic avant-garde. This makes a great deal of sense, as manifestos—whether political, aesthetic, or both—can be seen in the first instance as a form of avant-garde writing, calling into being a new future. From the early twentieth century onward, film manifestos played a...

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The Futurist Cinema (Italy, 1916)

F. T. Marinetti, Bruno Corra, Emilio Settimelli, Arnaldo Ginna, Giacomo Balla, Remo Chiti

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pp. 15-18

The book, a wholly passéist means of preserving and communicating thought, has for a long time been fated to disappear like cathedrals, towers, crenellated walls, museums, and the pacifist ideal. The book, static companion of the sedentary, the nostalgic, the neutralist, cannot entertain or exalt the new Futurist generations intoxicated with revolutionary...

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Lenin Decree (USSR, 1919)

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

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pp. 19-20

On the transfer of the Photographic and Cinematographic Trade and Industry to the Peoples Commissariat of Education.
1. The entire photographic and cinematographic trade and industry, their organisation as well as the supply and distribution of technical means and...

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The ABCs of Cinema (France, 1917–1921)

Blaise Cendrars

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pp. 20-23

Cinema. Whirlwind of movement in space. Everything falls. The sun falls. We fall in its wake. Like a chameleon, the human mind camouflages itself, camouflaging the universe. The world. The globe. The two hemispheres. Leibniz’ monads and Schopenhauer’s representation. My will. The cardinal hypotheses of science end in...

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WE: Variant of a Manifesto (USSR, 1922)

Dziga Vertov

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pp. 23-26

We call ourselves kinoks—as opposed to “cinematographers,” a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags.
We see no connection between true kinochestvo2 and the cunning and calculation of the profiteers.
We consider the psychological Russo-German film drama—weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories—an...

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The Method of Making Workers’ Films (USSR, 1925)

Sergei Eisenstein

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pp. 27-28

There is one method for making any film: montage of attractions. To know what this is and way, see the book, Cinema Today, where, rather dishevelled and illegible, my approach to the construction of film works is described.
Our class approach...

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Constructivism in the Cinema (USSR, 1928)

Alexei Gan

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pp. 29-30

The constructivists have also entered the cinema with their materialistic program. The cinema is the aggregate of an optical and mechanical apparatus. The cinema shows on the screen a sequence of photographic stills, i.e. movement. This provides us with the opportunity to capture immediately and dynamically the processes of all kinds of work...

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Preface: Un chien Andalou (France, 1928)

Luis Buñuel

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p. 31

The publication of this screenplay in La Révolution surréaliste is the only one I have authorized. It expresses, without any reservations, my complete adherence to surrealist thought and activity. Un Chien andalou would not exist if surrealism did not exist.
A box-office success, that’s what most people think who have seen the film. But what can...

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Manifesto of the Surrealists Concerning L’Age d’or (France, 1930)

The Surrealist Group (Maxime Alexandre, Louis Aragon, André Breton, René Char, René Crevel, Salvador Dalí, Paul Eluard, Benjamin Péret, Georges Sadoul, André Thirion, Tristan Tzara, Pierre Unik, Albert Valentin)

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pp. 31-37

On Wednesday 12 November 1930 and on subsequent days several hundred people, obliged to take their seats daily in a theatre, drawn to this spot by very different not to say contradictory aspirations covering the widest spectrum, from the best to the worst, these people generally unfamiliar with each other and even, from a social point of view, avoiding...

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Manifesto on “Que Viva Mexico” (USA, 1933)

The Editors of Experimental Film

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pp. 38-40

Last year, a great deal of space was devoted to a film entitled Que Viva Mexico!, which S. M. Eisenstein, the renowned Soviet director was making at that time. There were two articles on the film, one of them an authorized interpretation by Augustin Aragon Leiva, Eisenstein’s special assistant throughout the production. In addition, there were ten pages...

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Spirit of Truth (France, 1933)

Le Corbusier

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pp. 41-43

Sprit of Truth!
Here, too, and fundamentally. In the cinema: spirit of truth.
I have claimed it insistently for architecture; and, in 1924, at the time of the preparations for the International Exposition of Decorative Arts, I intimated clearly by that insistence that decorative art had no right to exist—at least as the distressingly encumbered...

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An Open Letter to the Film Industry and to All Who Are Interested in the Evolution of the Good Film (Hungary, 1934)

László Moholy-Nagy

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pp. 44-47

Shall we look on while the film, this wonderful instrument, is being destroyed before our eyes by stupidity and a dull-witted amateurism? The unbiased observer cannot fail to see, to his great distress, that the film production of the world is growing more and more trivial every year. To the trained eye and mind the present-day film can give no pleasure...

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Light*Form*Movement*Sound (USA, 1935)

Mary Ellen Bute

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p. 47

The Absolute Film is not a new subject. It is concerned with an art which has had as logical a development as other arts, perhaps slowly but naturally.
This art is the interrelation of light, form, movement, and sound—combined and projected to stimulate an aesthetic idea. It is unassociated with ideas of religion, literature...

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Prolegomena for All Future Cinema (France, 1952)

Guy Debord

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pp. 49-50

Love is only valid in a revolutionary period.

I made this film while there is still time to talk.

One must rise with the most violence possible against an ethical order that will later be obsolete...

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No More Flat Feet! (France, 1952)

Lettriste International (Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Guy Debord, and Gil J. Wolman)

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pp. 50-51

Sub Mack Sennett director, sub-Max Linder actor, Stavisky of the tears of unwed mothers and the little orphans of Auteuil, you are Chaplin, emotional blackmailer, master-singer of misfortune.
The cameraman needed his Delly. It’s only to him that you’ve given your works, and your good works: your charities...

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The Lettristes Disavow the Insulters of Chaplin (France, 1952)

Jean-Isidore Isou, Maurice Lemaître, and Gabriel Pomerand

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pp. 51-52

The members of the Lettriste movement are united on the basis of new principles of knowledge and each keeps his independence as far as the details of the application of these principles. We all know that [Charles] Chaplin was been “a great creator in the history of the cinema” but “the total (and baroque) hysteria” that has surrounded his arrival...

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The Only Dynamic Art (USA, 1953)

Jim Davis

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pp. 52-56

After thirty years as a painter and sculptor I have come to the conclusion that the only recording medium with which a visual artist can express the ideas of our time adequately is motion picture film.
My own experience and observation of the work of contemporary painters and sculptors...

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A Statement of Principles (USA, 1961)

Maya Deren

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pp. 56-58

My films are for everyone.
I include myself, for I believe that I am a part of, not apart from humanity; that nothing I may feel, think, perceive, experience, despise, desire, or despair of is really unknowable to any other man...

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The First Statement of the New American Cinema Group (USA, 1961)

New American Cinema Group

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pp. 58-60

In the course of the past three years we have been witnessing the spontaneous growth of a new generation of film makers—the Free Cinema in England, the Nouvelle Vague in France, the young movements in Poland, Italy, and Russia, and, in this country, the work of Lionel Rogosin, John Cassavetes, Alfred Leslie, Robert Frank, Edward Bland, Bert Stern...

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Foundation for the Invention and Creation of Absurd Movies (USA, 1962)

Ron Rice

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p. 61

Taylor Mead and I were often asked how we worked on the conception, actin [sic] and shooting of The Flower Thief. Merely answering this question would give away our whole secret of developing the kino-eye technique of advanced underground study and aplication [sic].
The collaboration between a director and his actor can take a wide variety of forms and...

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From Metaphors on Vision (USA, 1963)

Stan Brakhage

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pp. 62-69

Imagine an eye unruled by man-made laws of perspective, an eye unprejudiced by compositional logic, an eye which does not respond to the name of everything but which must know each object encountered in life through an adventure of perception. How many colors are there in a field of grass to the crawling baby unaware of “Green”? How many...

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Kuchar 8mm Film Manifesto (USA, 1964)

George Kuchar

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pp. 69-70

Yes, 8mm is a tool of defence in this society of mechanised corruption because through 8mm and its puny size we come closer to the dimension of the atom.
We in this modern world of geological dormanicity are now experiencing an evolution evolving around minutenocities. We no longer think big except in the realm of nuclear...

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Film Andepandan [Independents] Manifesto (Japan, 1964)

Takahiko Iimura, Koichiro Ishizaki, Nobuhiko Obayashi, Jyushin Sato, Donald Richie

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pp. 70-72

For cinema of genuine freedom: The Film Andepandan Proposal
With film critic Jyushin Sato and filmmaker Takahiko Iimura at its centre, the “Film Independents” project [with a call for the Film Independents Festival] is underway. The new art movement is drawing a lot of attention as it looks into the possibilities of private...

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Discontinuous Films (Canada, 1967)

Keewatin Dewdney

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pp. 72-76

Tony Conrad’s The Flicker is a raw, archetypal statement about the nature of film, a statement which few understood. The Flicker revealed at one stroke that the projector, not the camera, is the film-maker’s true medium. This is not to say film-makers are unaware of the projector and screen, the movie-house environment (they must learn to visualize a...

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Hand-Made Films Manifesto (Australia, 1968)

UBU Films, Thoms

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pp. 76-77

1. Let no one say anymore that they can’t raise enough money to make a film—any scrap of film can be turned into a hand-made film at no cost.
2. Let photography be no longer essential to filmmaking—hand-made films are made without a camera...

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Cinema Manifesto (Australia, 1971)

Arthur Cantrill and Corinne Cantrill

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pp. 77-78

We’ve exhausted the human situation as film material—we’ve seen a million love affairs, intrigues, socially committed films, anti-war films; we’re not interested in who’s up who and who’s paying any longer. We’ve been sated by countless films of Man and his confrontation with Life (mainly from East Europe—it didn’t get them very far). Freud...

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For a Metahistory of Film: Commonplace Notes and Hypotheses (USA, 1971)

Hollis Frampton

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pp. 78-85

Once upon a time, according to reliable sources, history had its own Muse, and her name was Clio. She presided over the making of a class of verbal artifacts that extends from a half-light of written legend through, possibly, Gibbon.
These artifacts shared the assumption that events are numerous and replete beyond...

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Elements of the Void (Greece, 1972)

Gregory Markopoulos

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pp. 86-87

I am writing this essay in utter disbelief which lays bare the road of hope for the Temenos.
Forthwith will the mighty hand elevate my purpose.
Possibilities and contributions should lead naturally, one from another. They do not. The situation is impossible, and at the same time the situation is improbable. Improbable...

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Small Gauge Manifesto (USA, 1980)

JoAnn Elam and Chuck Kleinhans

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p. 87

Small gauge film (regular 8 and Super 8) is low cost, technically accessible, and appropriate for small scale viewing.
Because it’s cheap and you can shoot a lot of film, filming can be flexible and spontaneous. Because the equipment is light and unobtrusive, the filming relationship can be...

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Cinema of Transgression Manifesto (USA, 1985)

Nick Zedd

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pp. 88-89

We who have violated the laws, commands and duties of the avant-garde; i.e. to bore, tranquilize and obfuscate through a fluke process dictated by practical convenience stand guilty as charged. We openly renounce and reject the entrenched academic snobbery which erected a monument to laziness known as structuralism and proceeded to lock out those filmmakers...

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Modern, All Too Modern (USA, 1988)

Keith Sanborn

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pp. 89-100

1.
Lenin to Lunacharsky: “Amongst our people you are reported to be a patron of art so you must remember that of all the arts for us the most important is cinema.”
2.
Goebbels on Potemkin: “It is a marvelously well made film, and one which reveals incomparable cinematic artistry. Its uniquely distinctive quality is the line it takes. This is...

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Open Letter to the Experimental Film Congress: Let’s Set the Record Straight (Canada, 1989)

Peggy Ahwesh, Caroline Avery, Craig Baldwin, Abigail Child, Su Friedrich, Barbara Hammer, Todd Haynes, Lewis Klahr, Ross McLaren, John Porter, Yvonne Rainer, Berenice Reynaud, Keith Sanborn, Sarah Schulman, Jeffrey Skoller, Phil Solomon, and Leslie Thornton, and fifty-nine other filmmakers

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pp. 100-101

We challenge the official History promoted by the International Experimental Film Congress to be held in Toronto this Spring. The time is long overdue to unwrite the Institutional Canon of Master Works of the Avant-Garde. It is time to shift focus from the History of Film to the position of film within the construction of history. The narratives...

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Anti-100 Years of Cinema Manifesto (USA, 1996)

Jonas Mekas

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pp. 102-103

As you well know it was God who created this Earth and everything on it. And he thought it was all great. All painters and poets and musicians sang and celebrated the creation and that was all OK. But not for real. Something was missing. So about 100 years ago God decided to create the motion picture camera. And he did so. And then he created a...

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The Decalogue (Czech Republic, 1999)

Jan Švankmajer

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pp. 103-105

1. Remember that there is only one poetry. The antithesis of poetry is professional expertise.
Before you start filming, write a poem, paint a picture, put together a collage, write a book or an essay etc. Because only the nurture of the universality of expression will guarantee that you create a good film...

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Your Film Farm Manifesto on Process Cinema (Canada, 2012)

Philip Hoffman

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pp. 105-106

Enter through the big barn doors, without sketches, scripts, props, actors, or cell phones. Your films will surface through the relationship between your camera and what passes in front. It may take the whole of the workshop for you to shake away the habit of planning, what has become the guiding light of the profit-driven film world. Without the...

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2. National and Transnational Cinemas

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pp. 107-111

Although there has been a great deal of scholarship on the emergence and development of national cinemas, the role played by film manifestos in their histories has often been marginalized. The waves and movements that arose in Europe from the rubble of World War II were greatly tied to film manifestos. There are many salient reasons for this: the...

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From “The Glass Eye” (Italy, 1933)

Leo Longanesi

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pp. 112-116

I do not believe that, in Italy, there is need for set designers to make a film. We should put together films simple and unadorned in their mise-en-scène, films without artifice, directed as much as possible from the real.
It is in fact the real that is missing from our films. We need to throw ourselves into...

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The Archers’ Manifesto (UK, 1942)

Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger

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pp. 116-117

One: we owe allegiance to nobody except the financial interests which provide our money; and, to them, the sole responsibility of ensuring them a profit, not a loss.
Two: every single foot in our films is our own responsibility and nobody else’s. We refuse to be guided or coerced by any influence but our own judgment...

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What Is Wrong with Indian Films? (India, 1948)

Satyajit Ray

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pp. 117-120

One of the most significant phenomena of our time has been the development of the cinema from a turn-of-the-century mechanical toy into the century’s most potent and versatile art form. In its early chameleon-like phase the cinema was used variously as an extension of photography, as a substitute for the theater and the music hall, and as a part...

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Buñuel the Poet (Mexico, 1951)

Octavio Paz

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pp. 120-123

The release of L’Age d’or and Un chien andalou signals the first considered irruption of poetry into the art of cinematography. The marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality, inevitably appeared scandalous and subversive—as indeed it was. The subversive nature of Buñuel’s early films resides in the fact that, hardly touched by the hand of...

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French Cinema Is Over (France, 1952)

Serge Berna, Guy Debord, François Dufrêne, Monique Geoffrey, Jean-Isidore Isou, Yolande du Luart, Marc’O, Gabriel Pomerand, Poucette, and Gil J. Wolman

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pp. 123-124

A number of men, dissatisfi ed with what they have been given, surpass the world of offi cial expressions and the festivals of its poverty.
After L’ESTHETIQUE DU CINEMA by Isidore ISOU, TAMBOURS DU JUGEMENT PREMIER, the essay in imaginary cinema by François DUFRENE, systematizes to the...

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Some Ideas on the Cinema (Italy, 1953)

Cesare Zavattini

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pp. 124-133

No doubt one’s first and most superficial reaction to everyday reality is that it is tedious. Until we are able to overcome some moral and intellectual laziness, in fact, this reality will continue to appear uninteresting. One shouldn’t be astonished that the cinema has always felt the natural, unavoidable necessity to insert a “story” in the reality to make it...

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A Certain Tendency in French Cinema (France, 1954)

François Truffaut

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pp. 133-144

These notes have no other object than to attempt to define a certain tendency of the French cinema—a tendency called “psychological realism”—and to sketch its limits.
If the French cinema exists by means of about a hundred films a year, it is well understood that only ten or twelve merit the attention of critics and cinephiles, the attention...

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Salamanca Manifesto & Conclusions of the Congress of Salamanca (Spain, 1955)

Juan Antonio Bardem

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pp. 144-149

Spanish cinema lives in isolation. Isolated not only from the world but from our own reality . . . Spanish cinema is still a cinema of painted dolls. The problem with Spanish cinema is that it has no problems, that it is not that witness of our time which our time requires of every human creation. . . . Our purpose must be to give content to this uninhabited...

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Free Cinema Manifestos (UK, 1956–1959)

Committee for Free Cinema

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pp. 149-152

Lorenza Mazzetti, Lindsay Anderson, Karel Reisz, and Tony Richardson

These films were not made together; nor with the idea of showing them together. But when they came together, we felt they had an attitude in common. Implicit in this attitude is a belief in freedom, in the importance of people and in the significance of the...

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The Oberhausen Manifesto (West Germany, 1962)

Alexander Kluge, Edgar Reitz, Bodo Blüthner, Boris von Borresholm, Christian Doermer, Bernhard Dörries, Heinz Furchner, Rob Houwer, Ferdinand Khittl, Pitt Koch, Walter Krüttner, Dieter Lemmel, Hans Loeper, Ronald Martini, Hansjürgen Pohland, Raimond Ruehl, Peter Schamoni, Detten Schleiermacher, Fritz Schwennicke, Haro Senft, Franz-Josef Spieker, Hans Rolf Strobel, Heinz Tichawsky, Wolfgang Urchs, Herbert Vesely, and Wolf Wirth

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pp. 152-153

The collapse of the conventional German film finally removes the economic basis for a mode of filmmaking whose attitude and practice we reject. With it the new film has a chance to come to life.
German short fi lms by young authors, directors, and producers have in recent years...

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Untitled [Oberhausen 1965] (West Germany, 1965)

Jean-Marie Straub, Rodolf Thome, Dirk Alvermann, Klaus Lemke, Peter Nestler, Reinald Schnell, Dieter Süverkrüp, Kurt Ulrich, Max Zihlmann

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pp. 153-154

[West German] Short Film Days have a meaning only when they help to discover still unknown [West German] filmmakers.
Lenica, Kristil, Kluge, and so on, are no longer discoverable.
However, for three years in this country, Peter Nestler, the truest and most reliable filmmaker, has had three of his films...

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The Mannheim Declaration (West Germany, 1967)

Joseph von Sternberg, Alexander Kluge, Jacob Heidbüchel, Reiner Keller, Fee Vaillant, Herbert Pötgens, K. F. Göltz, Walter Talmon-Gros, Edgar Reitz, Hans Rolf Strobel, Norbert Kückelmann, Michael Lentz, Heinrich Tichawsky, Peter M. Ladiges

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pp. 154-155

Six years have passed since the Oberhausen Declaration. The renewal of German film has not yet taken place. The initial international successes have suggested new directions. Before one can move in these directions they are already being blocked off again.
The undersigned repeat the Oberhausen demand for the renewal of German film...

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Sitges Manifesto (Spain, 1967)

Manuel Revuelta, Antonio Artero, Joachin Jordà, and Julián Marcos

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pp. 155-157

Conclusions of the First International Congress of Film Schools, Sitges, October 1967:
1. We advocate the creation of an independent cinema, free of any industrial political or bureaucratic constraint.
To obtain this the following conditions are indispensable...

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How to Make a Canadian Film (Canada, 1967)

Guy Glover

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pp. 157-160

It is understood that when one speaks of “a Canadian film” one has in mind only: (a) a feature-length film; or (b) a multi-screen presentation of unspecifi ed complexity but tending to the “total.”...

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How to Not Make a Canadian Film (Canada, 1967)

Claude Jutra

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pp. 161-162

1) Choose an uncommercial subject, so intimate as to be indecent, uninteresting, futile, immoral, sordid, etc. . . .
2) Make yourself a big star, and crowd around with old pals.
3) Don’t write a line of script, but improvise day by day, not too seriously, but convincing...

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From “The Estates General of the French Cinema, May 1968” (France, 1968)

Thierry Derocles, Michel Demoule, Claude Chabrol, and Marin Karmitz

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pp. 162-165

Proposed by Thierry Derocles and drawn up by Michel Demoule, Claude Chabrol, Marin Karmitz. This was considered to be totally utopian by some and by others (a growing number, it’s true) as the only truly revolutionary project presented. It was to this uniqueness that it owed its extremely positive role of stimulus, agitation, and provocation of bad...

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Manifesto of the New Cinema Movement (India, 1968)

Arun Kaul and Mrinal Sen

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pp. 165-168

The Indian fi lm, especially Hindi Cinema, is at its lowest ebb today. Spiralling costs of production, rocketing star prices, exorbitant rates of interest charged by fi nanciers, widespread acceptance of “black money” transactions in all sectors of the fi lm industry—all this, together with the inane stress of non-essential and an incredible dearth of ideas and...

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What Is to Be Done? (France, 1970)

Jean-Luc Godard

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pp. 169-170

1. We must make political films.
2. We must make films politically.
3. 1 and 2 are antagonistic to each other and belong to two opposing conceptions of the world.
4. 1 belongs to the idealistic and metaphysical conception of the world...

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The Winnipeg Manifesto (Canada, 1974)

Denys Arcand, Colin Low, Don Shebib, David Acomba, Linda Beth, Milad Bessada, Kirwan Cox, Jack Darcus, Martin DeFalco, Sandra Gathercole, Jack Grey, Ági Ibrányi-Kiss, Len Klady, Peter Pearson, Tom Shandel, Jean-Pierre Tadros, Frank Vitale, Les Wedman, John Wright

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pp. 170-171

We the undersigned filmmakers and filmworkers wish to voice our belief that the present system of film production/distribution/exhibition works to the extreme disadvantage of the Canadian filmmaker and film audience. We wish to state unequivocally that film is an expression and affirmation of the cultural reality of this country first, and a business second...

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Hamburg Declaration of German Filmmakers (West Germany, 1979)

Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and fi fty-seven others

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p. 172

On the occasion of the Hamburg Film Festival we German filmmakers have come together. Seventeen years after Oberhausen we have taken stock.
The strength of the German film is its variety. In three months the eighties will begin.
Imagination does not allow itself to be governed. Committee heads cannot decide what the productive film should do. The German film of the eighties can no longer be governed...

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Manifesto I (Denmark, 1984)

Lars von Trier

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pp. 173-174

Everything seems to be all right: film-makers are in an unsullied relationship with their products, possibly a relationship with a hint of routine, but, nonetheless, a good and solid relationship, where everyday problems fill the time more than adequately, so that they alone form the content! In other words, an ideal marriage that not even the neighbours...

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Manifesto II (Denmark, 1987)

Lars von Trier

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p. 174

Everything seems fine. Young men are living in stable relationships with a new generation of films. The birth-control methods which are assumed to have contained the epidemic have only served to make birth control more effective: no unexpected creations, no illegitimate children—the genes are intact. These young men’s relationships resemble...

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Manifesto III: I Confess! (Denmark, 1990)

Lars von Trier

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pp. 174-175

Seemingly all is well: Film director Lars von Trier is a scientist, artist, and human being. And yet I say: I am a human being. But I’m an artist. But I’m a film director.
I cry as I write these lines, for how sham was my attitude. Who am I to lecture and chastise? Who am I to scornfully brush aside other people’s lives and work? My shame is only...

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The Cinema We Need (Canada, 1985)

R. Bruce Elder

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pp. 176-183

The task of achieving some clarity about our cultural situation and of developing the means to deal with the present cultural crisis is an urgent one—I believe the most important task now demanded of Canadians, even more important, all the exhortatory rhetoric to the contrary, than the formulation of social policy on employment in an era...

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Pathways to the Establishment of a Nigerian Film Industry (Nigeria, 1985)

Ola Balogun

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pp. 183-192

It has long been evident that most African nations are severely handicapped in the mass communications field by the inability of our various national leaderships to grasp the crucial role of mass media in the modern era. This deficiency of long-term vision and understanding on the part of the vast majority of African leaders is further compounded...

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Manifesto of 1988 (German Democratic Republic, 1988)

Young DEFA Filmmakers

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pp. 192-194

1. Motion pictures are a medium of society. Stagnation in the control of influence over our motion pictures and the social processes evident in recent years represents principally the surrender of our responsibility, but at the same time the expression of the social condition. Society must reveal itself in every aspect...

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In Praise of a Poor Cinema (Scotland, 1993)

Colin McArthur

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pp. 194-201

“. . . to ensure the development of a viable, vigorous, and substantial Scottish film industry designed to attract and deploy the talents of Scottish film-makers and to enable them to make films in their own country . . .” (From the 1991 Annual Report, Scottish Film Production Fund.)...

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Dogme ’95 Manifesto and Vow of Chastity (Denmark, 1995)

Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg

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pp. 201-203

Dogme 95 is a collective of film directors founded in Copenhagen in spring 1995.
Dogme 95 has the expressed goal of countering “certain tendencies” in the cinema today.
Dogme 95 is a rescue action!
In 1960 enough was enough! The movie was dead and called for resurrection. The goal...

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I Sinema Manifesto (Indonesia, 1999)

Dimas Djayadinigrat, Enison Sinaro, Ipang Wahid, Jay Subiykto, Mira Lesmana, Nan T. Achnas, Richard Butario, Riri Riza, Rizal Mantovani, Sentot Sahid, Srikaton, Nayato Fio Nuala

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pp. 203-204

1. Film as Freedom of Expression.
2. To find a new art form and genre in Indonesian film industry.
3. To maintain originality from censorship.
4. The ability to use any film material to achieve feature film standard...

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3. Third Cinemas, Colonialism, Decolonization, and Postcolonialsim

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pp. 205-208

Next to the avant-garde, the debates surrounding Third Cinema have produced more manifestos than any other area of the cinema. This chapter begins with a collection of the major Third Cinema manifestos and their precursors in Latin America, which trace the developing sense of urgency in Latin America to produce a local cinema that addresses...

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Manifesto of the New Cinema Group (Mexico, 1961)

El grupo nuevo cine: José de la Colina, Rafael Cordiki, Salvador Elizondo, J. M. García Ascot, Emilia García Riera, J. L. González de León, Heriberto Lafranchi, Carlos Monsiváis, Julio Pliego, Gabriel Ramírez, José María Sbert, and Luis Vicens. Subsequently signed by José Baez Esponda, Armando Bartra, Nancy Cárdenas, Leopoldo Chagoya, Ismael García Llaca, Alberto Isaac, Paul Leduc, Eduardo Lizalde, Fernando Macotela, and Francisco Pina

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pp. 209-210

Hereby the undersigned the New Cinema group, filmmakers, aspiring filmmakers, critics and cinema club owners; we declare that our objectives are the following:
Improving the depressing state of Mexican Cinema. In order to accomplish that we feel it is imperative to open the doors to new filmmakers. In our opinion, nothing justifies...

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Cinema and Underdevelopment (Argentina, 1962)

Fernando Birri

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pp. 211-217

The following answers should all be understood, and very concretely so, as concerned with a sub-cinematography, that of Argentina and the region of underdeveloped Latin America of which it is a part. Furthermore, they reflect the point of view of a film director from a capitalist and neocolonialist country, the opposite pole from the situation...

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The Aesthetics of Hunger (Brazil, 1965)

Glauber Rocha

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pp. 218-220

Dispensing with the informative introduction that has become so characteristic of discussions about Latin America, I prefer to discuss the relationship between our culture and “civilised” culture in less limiting terms than those which characterise the analysis of the European observer. Thus, while Latin America laments its general misery, the foreign...

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For an Imperfect Cinema (Cuba, 1969)

Julio García Espinosa

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pp. 220-230

Nowadays, perfect cinema—technically and artistically masterful—is almost always reactionary cinema. The major temptation facing Cuban cinema at this time—when it is achieving its objective of becoming a cinema of quality, one which is culturally meaningful within the revolutionary process—is precisely that of transforming itself into a perfect cinema...

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Towards a Third Cinema: Notes and Experiences for the Development of a Cinema of Liberation in the Third World (Argentina, 1969)

Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino

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pp. 230-250

Just a short time ago it would have seemed like a Quixotic adventure in the colonised, neocolonised, or even the imperialist nations themselves to make any attempt to create films of decolonisation that turned their back on or actively opposed the System. Until recently, fi lm had been synonymous with spectacle or entertainment: in a word, it was one...

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Film Makers and the Popular Government Political Manifesto (Chile, 1970)

Comité de cine de la unidad popular

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pp. 250-252

Chilean film makers, it is time for us all to undertake, together with our people, the great task of national liberation and the construction of socialism.
It is time for us to begin to redeem our own values in order to affi rm our cultural and political identity.

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Consciousness of a Need (Uruguay, 1970)

Mario Handler

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pp. 253-256

Look here, Marcha: In Uruguay the cinema has always found itself in an exceptionally difficult situation. Now—even more so. At the same time, cinema is needed more than ever, and we have a greater consciousness of this need.
In terms of economic and technical resources today, we are still five years behind Bolivia, ten years behind Chile and Venezuela, then years behind Litorial University...

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Militant Cinema: An Internal Category of Third Cinema (Argentina, 1971)

Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas

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pp. 256-258

In a previous article, we defined three types of cinema: the first cinema or overtly commercial cinema based on the American model; the second cinema, or “auteur cinema,” a variant of first cinema, and similarly subject to the “owners of cinema” or to surplus value cinema; and the third cinema, the cinema of liberation...

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For Colombia 1971: Militancy and Cinema (Colombia, 1971)

Carlos Alvarez

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pp. 258-264

In Latin America today, the act of taking up a camera to make a film is dangerous. And this is a good thing.
Social events and their development demand, and themselves give rise to, categorical definitions.
The vacillating men on the fence, on good terms with both God and the Devil, are reminders of more agreeable, less...

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The Cinema: Another Face of Colonised Québec (Canada, 1971)

Association professionnelle des cinéastes du Québec

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pp. 264-272

Once again the issue of film censorship is occupying the front pages of the newspapers. The debate is taking place in an atmosphere of total confusion: a steady stream of declarations and counter-declarations, press conferences and telegrams-supporting, answering, contradicting each other assaults the public from all sides. Political leaders and cult...

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8 Millimeters versus 8 Millions (Mexico, 1972)

Jaime Humberto Hermosillo, Arturo Ripstein, Paul Leduc, Felipe Cazals, Rafael Castanedo, Eduardo Maldonado, Gustavo Alatriste, Emilio García Riera, David Ramón, Tomás Pérez Turrent, and Fernando Gou

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pp. 272-273

We hereby declare before the public that the following people: Felipe Cazals, Arturo Ripstein, Paul Leduc, Rafael Castanedo, Eduardo Maldonado, Gustavo Alatriste, Jaime Humberto Hermosillo and the spokesmen Emilio García Riera, David Ramón, Tomás Pérez Turrent and Fernando Gou, are taking advantage of the word “Independent” for...

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Manifesto of the Palestinian Cinema Group (Palestine, 1973)

Palestinian Cinema Group

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pp. 273-275

The Arab cinema has for too long delighted in dealing with subjects having no connection to reality or dealing with it in a superficial manner. Based on stereotypes, this approach has created detestable habits among the Arab viewers for whom the cinema has become a kind of opium. It has led the public away from the real problems, dimming its lucidity...

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Resolutions of the Third World Filmmakers Meeting (Algeria, 1973)

Fernando Birri, Ousmane Sembène, Jorge Silva, Santiago Alvarez, Med Hondo, Jorge Cedron, Moussa Diakite, Flora Gomes, Mohamed Abdelwahad, El Hachmi Cherif, Lamine Merbah, Mache Khaled, Meziani Abdelhakim, Mamadou Sidibe, Mostefa Bouali, and more than twenty other filmmakers

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pp. 275-284

The Committee on People’s Cinema—the role of cinema and filmmakers in the third world against imperialism and neocolonialism—consisted of the following filmmakers and observers: Fernando Birri (Argentina); Humberto Rios (Bolivia); Manuel Perez (Cuba); Jorge Silva (Columbia); Jorge Cedron (Argentina); Moussa Diakite (Republic of...

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The Luz e Ação Manifesto (Brazil, 1973)

Carlos Diegues, Glauber Rocha, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, Leon Hirszman, Miguel Faria, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Walter Lima Jr.

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pp. 284-285

Since 1968/69, our films have been victims of the cultural exorcism that has swept the country. New tendencies and emergent standards—official or not—have stifled us, but at the same time have permitted us time for reflection. And we have been silent.
The silence has animated old rancors and has permitted the...

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Problems of Form and Content in Revolutionary Cinema (Bolivia, 1976)

Jorge Sanjinés

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pp. 286-294

Revolutionary cinema must seek beauty not as an end but as a means. This implies a dialectical relationship between beauty and subject matter. For a work to be effective, this relationship must be correct. If it is not, the result will be nothing more than a pamphlet, perfect in what it says but schematic and gross in its form. The lack of coherent creative...

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Manifesto of the National Front of Cinematographers (Mexico, 1975)

Paul Leduc, Jorge Fons, Raul Araiza, Felipe Cazals, José Estrada, Jaime Humberto Hermosillo, Alberto Isaac, Gonzalo Martínez, Sergio Olhovich, Julián Pastor, Juan Manuel Torres, and Salomón Láiter

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pp. 294-296

That the Mexican cinema has until recently been one of the main ideological institutions supporting an unjust and dependent social order.
That it has been an active agent of cultural colonialism exploiting the ignorance, the illiteracy and hunger of the country and the continent.
That through alienating products it imposes ideological values and patterns of conduct...

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The Algiers Charter on African Cinema (Algeria, 1975)

FEPACI (Fédération panafricaine des cinéastes)

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pp. 296-298

For a responsible, free and committed cinema.
This charter was adopted at the Second Congress of the FEPACI (Fédération Panafricaine des Cinéastes) in Algiers, January 1975.
Contemporary African societies are still objectively undergoing an experience of domination exerted on a number of levels: political, economic and cultural. Cultural...

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Declaration of Principles and Goals of the Nicaraguan Institute of Cinema (Nicaragua, 1979)

Nicaraguan Institute of Cinema

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pp. 298-299

Until the day of the triumph of the Popular Sandinista Revolution, Nicaragua was a country dominated by the most bestial of Latin American dictatorships: the Somocista Dynasty.
This dynasty was nothing more than the expression of a secular domination imposed on our homeland by North American imperialism. Submitted to sacking, exploitation...

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What Is the Cinema for Us? (Mauritania, 1979)

Med Hondo

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pp. 300-303

Throughout the world when people use the term cinema, they all refer more or less consciously to a single cinema, which for more than half a century has been created, produced, industrialised, programmed and then shown on the world’s screens: Euro- American cinema.
This cinema has gradually imposed itself on a set of dominated peoples. With no...

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Niamey Manifesto of African Filmmakers (Niger, 1982)

FEPACI (Fédération panafricaine des cinéastes)

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pp. 303-307

The first international conference on cinema was held in Niamey, Niger, March 1–4, 1982. The participants were filmmakers, critics, officials from several African countries, and international cinema experts. The participants recognized the underdevelopment of cinema, including regular film productions in the majority of African countries...

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Black Independent Filmmaking: A Statement by the Black Audio Film Collective (UK, 1983)

John Akomfrah

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pp. 307-309

The area of black independent film-making will soon see the growth of a number of workshops established with the specific aim of catering for black film needs. We will also see a growth in the number of films made by members of these workshops. As in any other field of cultural activity and practice such a development calls for collective debate...

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From Birth Certificate of the International School of Cinema and Television in San Antonio de Los Baños, Cuba, Nicknamed the School of Three Worlds (Cuba, 1986)

Fernando Birri

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pp. 309-312

A few days after the beginning of the warm spring of 1986, surrounded by the turquoise blue Caribbean Sea, under a crescent moon, shipwrecked from Utopia, rescued from a world of imperial injustice and atomic madness, the Foundation for the New Latin American Cinema decided to create the International School of Cinema and Television...

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FeCAViP Manifesto (France, 1990)

Federation of Caribbean Audiovisual Professionals

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pp. 312-313

We, producers, filmmakers, screenwriters, technicians, and actors of the second Images Caraïbes Festival, 1990, being aware of the need to further develop the space within the Caribbean for professional workers in film and video, reflecting our special needs, and after having made a deep analysis of our reality, acknowledging the importance of film...

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Final Communique of the First Frontline Film Festival and Workshop (Zimbabwe, 1990)

SADCC (South African Development Coordination Conference)

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pp. 313-315

The First Frontline Film Festival and Workshop held in Harare, Zimbabwe, 15–21 July 1990, under the aegis of the Ministry of Information, Posts and Telecommunications and with the unique support of the OAU, SADCC Secretariat and FEPACI, was a result of the need to identify actions in co-operation in order to reinforce solidarity and friendship...

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Pocha Manifesto #1 (USA, 1994)

Sandra Peña-Sarmiento

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pp. 316-318

Throughout my life, I’ve constantly moved between cultures. My father is Mexican- American, my mother Bolivian, and I myself have been born and raised in suburban Southern California. In living a kind of “cultural nomadism” (drifting in and out of “heritages”) I grew frustrated with definitions in general—especially those imposed upon...

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Poor Cinema Manifesto (Cuba, 2004)

Humberto Solás

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pp. 318-319

Let’s clear up the misunderstandings: “Cinema of the Poor” does not mean cinema which lacks ideas or artistic quality, it means a cinema with a tight budget which is produced in outsider or less developed countries as well as in the bosom of the culturally and economic guiding societies, whether it be within official production programs or may it be...

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Jollywood Manifesto (Haiti, 2008)

Ciné Institute

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p. 320

1. We create simple local stories set in everyday life.
2. We tell our stories with images. We do not heavily rely on dialogue.
3. We recognize and use local resources.
4. We use non professional actors. We cast our friends, family, neighbors and...

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The Toronto Declaration: No Celebration of Occupation (Canada, 2009)

John Greyson, Naomi Klein, Udi Aloni, Elle Flanders, Richard Fung, Kathy Wazana, Cynthia Wright, b h Yael

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pp. 321-322

As members of the Canadian and international film, culture and media arts communities, we are deeply disturbed by the Toronto International Film Festival’s decision to host a celebratory spotlight on Tel Aviv. We protest that TIFF, whether intentionally or not, has become complicit in the Israeli propaganda machine.
In 2008, the Israeli government and...

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4. Gender, Feminist, Queer, Sexuality, and Porn Manifestos

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pp. 323-327

Manifestos played a key role in the development of feminist, queer, and sex-positive film culture, especially in the 1970s. These developments were part of a larger movement of finding new, nonpatriarchal languages to write about gender inequalities in books such as Hélène Cixous’s The Laugh of Medusa (1975). In the late 1960s, manifestos such as...

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Woman’s Place in Photoplay Production (USA, 1914)

Alice Guy-Blaché

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pp. 328-329

It has long been a source of wonder to me that many women have not yet seized upon the wonderful opportunities offered to them by the motion-picture art to make their way to fame and fortune as producers of photodramas. Of all the arts there is probably none of which they can make such splendid use of talents so much more natural to a woman...

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Hands Off Love (France, 1927)

Maxime Alexandre, Louis Aragon, Jean Arp, Jacques Baron, Jacques-André Boiffard, André Breton, Jean Carrive, Robert Desnos, Marcel Duhamel, Paul Eluard, Max Ernst, Jean Genbach, Camille Goemans, Paul Hooreman, Eugène Jolas, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Georges Malkine, André Masson, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Marcel Noll, Paul Nougé, Elliot Paul, Benjamin Péret, Jacques Prévert, Raymond Queneau, Man Ray, Georges Sadoul, Yves Tanguy, Roland Tual, and Pierre Unik

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pp. 330-336

All that can be invoked, that is of true value and force in the world, that is before all else to be defended, all that can place a man no matter what his standing in the discretion of judge let it for an instant be recalled the full meaning of the word judge, how at any moment by some accident your life may be at his mercy, whose decision can have the upper...

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The Perfect Filmic Appositeness of Maria Montez (USA, 1962)

Jack Smith

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pp. 336-344

At least in America Maria Montez could believe she was the Cobra woman, the Siren of Atlantis, Scheherazade, etc. She believed and thereby made the people who went to her movies believe. Those who could believe, did. Those who saw the World’s Worst Actress just couldn’t and they missed the magic. Too bad—their loss. Their magic comes from...

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On Film No. 4 (In Taking the Bottoms of 365 Saints of Our Time) (UK, 1967)

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pp. 344-345

I wonder how men can get serious at all. They have this delicate long thing hanging outside their bodies, which goes up and down by its own will. First of all having it outside your body is terribly dangerous. If I were a man I would have a fantastic castration complex to the point I wouldn’t be able to do a thing. Second, the inconsistency of it, like...

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Statement (USA, 1969)

Kenneth Anger

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p. 346

I have always considered the movies evil; the day that cinema was invented was a black day for mankind. Centuries before photography there were talismans, which actually anticipated photographs, since the dyes they used on the cheap vellum produced patterns when they faded in light. A talisman was a sticky fly-paper trying to trap a spirit—cunningly...

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Wet Dream Film Festival Manifesto (The Netherlands, 1970)

S.E.L.F. (Sexual Egalitarianism and Libertarian Fraternity: Germaine Greer, Al Goldstein, Jean Shrimpton, Jay Landeman, Richard Neville, Didi Wadidi, Mike Zwerkin)

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pp. 346-347

When we are unafraid and free from possessiveness it will make little difference what kind of social organization we choose to live under, because we will be open, kind and generous. It is sexual frustration, sexual envy, sexual fear, which permeates all our human relationships and which perverts them. The sexually liberated, the sexually tolerant and...

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Women’s Cinema as Counter-Cinema (UK, 1973)

Claire Johnston

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pp. 347-356

Panofsky’s detection of the primitive stereotyping which characterised the early cinema could prove useful for discerning the way myths of women have operated in the cinema: why the image of man underwent rapid differentiation, while the primitive stereotyping of women remained with some modifications. Much writing on the stereotyping of...

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Manifesto for a Non-sexist Cinema (Canada, 1974)

FECIP (Fédération européenne du cinéma progressiste)

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pp. 356-358

We don’t want the recognition of the anti-sexist struggle to be a concession granted to the women’s movement, like a bone thrown for us to nibble on, hoping we will stop clamouring.
We want every person to realize that she (or he) is deeply and intimately concerned with this question, whatever may be her (his) age, sex, profession or nationality...

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Womanifesto (USA, 1975)

Feminists in the Media

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p. 359

As feminists working collectively in film and video we see our media as an ongoing process both in terms of the way it is made and the way it is distributed and shown. We are committed to feminist control of the entire process. We do not accept the existing power structure and we are committed to changing it, by the content and structure of our images...

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Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (UK, 1975)

Laura Mulvey

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pp. 359-370

This paper intends to use psychoanalysis to discover where and how the fascination of film is reinforced by pre-existing patterns of fascination already at work within the individual subject and the social formations that have moulded him. It takes as starting point the way film reflects, reveals and even plays on the straight, socially established interpretation...

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An Egret in the Porno Swamp: Notes of Sex in the Cinema (Sweden, 1977)

Vilgot Sjöman

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pp. 370-375

1) Here in Sweden it went amazingly fast. Sexual liberalism had scarcely gained a bit of ground before the counteraction began. We promptly found ourselves back in a new puritanism.
Had anything really had time to happen?
Yes. We got sex shops. Suddenly sex clubs lay scattered all around town, with their...

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For the Self-Expression of the Arab Woman (France, 1978)

Heiny Srour, Salma Baccar, and Magda Wassef

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pp. 375-376

There are numerous obstacles which limit the self-expression of the Arab woman, among them:
• A feudal culture now fused with a bourgeois culture which represents the woman as a sexual object and an inferior, immature being. This image is reproduced through all means of expression, including progressive ones. In this...

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Manifesto of the Women Filmmakers (West Germany, 1979)

Verband der Filmarbeiterinnen (Petra Haffter, Christiane Kaltenbach, and Hildegard Westbeld)

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pp. 376-377

The Association of Women Filmmakers takes the liberty of expanding the Hamburg Declaration of the German Filmmakers to address the demands of women fi lmmakers. We demand:
1. 50 per cent of all funds for films, production facilities and research projects;
2. 50 per cent of all jobs and training places...

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Wimmin’s Fire Brigade Communiqué (Canada, 1982)

Wimmin’s Fire Brigade

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pp. 377-378

We, the Wimmin’s Fire Brigade, claim responsibility for the fire bombing of three Red Hot Video outlets in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia on November 22, 1982. This action is another step towards the destruction of a business that promotes and profits from violence against wimmin and children...

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Thoughts on Women’s Cinema: Eating Words, Voicing Struggles (USA, 1986)

Yvonne Rainer

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pp. 378-382

Polemics and manifestos having always served as spark plugs to my energies and imagination, I’ve been surprised when, following their publication, such statements were taken with what seemed to be excessive seriousness. Thus, in the mid-’60s, when I said “no” to this and “no” to that in dance and theater, I could not foresee that these words would dog...

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The Post Porn Modernist Manifesto (USA, 1989)

Annie Sprinkle, Veronica Vera, Frank Moores, Candida Royale, Leigh Gates

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p. 382

Let it be known to all who read these words or witness these events that a new awareness has come over the land. We of the Post Porn Modernist Movement face the challenge of the Rubber Age by acknowledging this moment in our personal sexual evolutions and in the sexual evolution of the planet.
We embrace our genitals as part, not separate, from our spirits...

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Statement of African Women Professionals of Cinema, Television and Video (Burkina Faso, 1991)

FEPACI (Fédération panafricaine des cinéastes)

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pp. 383-385

After fifty years of cinematographic production and twenty-five years of televisual production, how many women are involved? What positions do they occupy and what roles do they play?
After fifty years of cinematographic production and twenty-five years after televisual realisation, what images of African women are shown to women of this continent, and...

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Puzzy Power Manifesto: Thoughts on Women and Pornography (Denmark, 1998)

Vibeke Windeløv, Lene Børglum, Gerd Winther, Lili Hendriksen, Christina Loshe, and Mette Nelund

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pp. 385-388

In the last few years a new generation of women have begun to make themselves felt. Women who have grown up with another attitude to their own bodies and sexuality than used to be the norm. Advertising agencies have been using the male body as a sex symbol along the same lines as the female body for ages, and male striptease acts playing to...

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Cinema with Tits (Spain, 1998)

Icíar Bollaín

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pp. 388-390

The difference between men and women is basically that men are men and we are women. Men have dicks and we don’t. We have tits and they don’t. We also have more of a waist and they have less of an ass (some, anyway). And even though it seems obvious, when we make films it turns out everything gets complicated and the media, that is, the ones...

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My Porn Manifesto (France, 2002)

Ovidie

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pp. 390-392

Why did I become a porn star? Let’s get two clichés out of the way: it wasn’t for the money or for the sex. Whatever you may have heard, making pornographic films in Europe is not a license to print money.
In many countries, the adult video market is dying. With cinemas refusing to screen pornography and producers ineligible for government grants, the main source of income...

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No More Mr. Nice Gay: A Manifesto (USA, 2009)

Todd Verow

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pp. 392-396

Sorry, I didn’t mean to kill New Queer Cinema. I was young, innocent (well—at the least, more innocent than I am today) when I made my first feature Frisk (Berlinale 1996). I hated the book and I suppose, in hindsight—that’s why I jumped at the chance to make the film version. I have a natural instinct to destroy in the name of creativity. Besides, we...

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Barefoot Filmmaking Manifesto (UK, 2009)

Sally Potter

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pp. 396-397

The best time to start is now (don’t wait)

Take responsibility for everything (it saves time)

Don’t blame anyone or anything (including yourself)

Give up being a moviemaker victim (of circumstance, weather, lack of money, mean financiers, vicious...

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Dirty Diaries Manifesto (Sweden, 2009)

Mia Engberg

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pp. 397-400

1. BEAUTIFUL THE WAY WE ARE
To hell with the sick beauty ideals! Deep self-hatred keeps a lot of women’s energy and creativity sapped. The energy that could be focused into exploring our own sexuality and power is being drained off into diets and cosmetics. Don’t let the commercial powers control your needs and desires...

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5. Militating Hollywood

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pp. 401-404

At first one might not assume that manifestos and Hollywood go hand in hand. This selection of manifestos proves otherwise. The chapter begins with a series of manifestos written by right-wing producers, directors, scriptwriters, and journalists about the threat to the American way of life posed by communism. Writers and signatories as diverse as...

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Code to Govern the Making of Talking, Synchronized and Silent Motion Pictures (Motion Picture Production Code) (USA, 1930)

Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America

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pp. 405-417

Formulated and formally adopted by The Association of Motion Picture Producers, Inc. and The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc. in March 1930.
Motion picture producers recognize the high trust and confidence which have been placed in them by the people of the world and which have made motion pictures a universal...

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Red Films: Soviets Spreading Doctrine in U.S. Theatres (USA, 1935)

William Randolph Hearst

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pp. 417-420

The multi-armed octopus of Moscow has many of its colossal, death-dealing tentacles wound around America.
It silently reaches for a strangle hold on our universities, our industries, our public schools, our labor organizations and our national and our State legislative bodies.
The vowed purpose is the complete annihilation of the United States of America and...

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Statement of Principles (USA, 1944)

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals

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pp. 420-421

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength...

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Screen Guide for Americans (USA, 1947)

Ayn Rand

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pp. 422-432

The influence of Communists in Hollywood is due, not to their own power, but to the unthinking carelessness of those who profess to oppose them. Red propaganda has been put over in some films produced by innocent men, often by loyal Americans who deplore the spread of Communism throughout the world and wonder why it is spreading...

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White Elephant Art vs. Termite Art (USA, 1962)

Manny Farber

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pp. 432-439

Most of the feckless, listless quality of today’s art can be blamed on its drive to break out of a tradition, while, irrationally, hewing to the square, boxed-in shape and gemlike inertia of an old, densely wrought European masterpiece.
Advanced painting has long been suffering from this burnt-out notion of a...

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Super Fly: A Summary of Objections by the Kuumba Workshop (USA, 1972)

Kuumba Workshop

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p. 440

“Super Fly” . . . A Subtle, Deadly Ripoff
1. The film advocated using dope—the biggest, most destructive killer of Black people in the country.
2. It never deals with the deadly consequences of dope dealing which is sweeping Black communities like a ravaging plague...

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Full Frontal Manifesto (USA, 2001)

Steven Soderbergh

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pp. 441-442

Important
If you are an actor considering a role in this film, please note the following:
1. All sets are practical locations.
2. You will drive yourself to the set. If you are unable to drive yourself to the set, a driver will pick you up, but you will probably become the subject of ridicule. Either way, you arrive...

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6. The Creative Treatment of Actuality

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pp. 443-447

Since its inception, cinema has often been described as a dichotomy between the actualités of the Lumière brothers and the fantasies of Georges Méliès. But despite Hitchcock’s bon mot that “in feature films the director is God; in documentary films God is the director,” this dichotomy has always been a false one.¹ As early as 1896...

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Towards a Social Cinema (France, 1930)

Jean Vigo

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pp. 448-452

You’re right if you don’t think that we’re going to discover America together. I say this to indicate right away the precise import of the words on the scrap of paper you have been given as a promise of more to come.

I’m not concerned today with revealing what social cinema is, no more than I am in...

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From “First Principles of Documentary” (UK, 1932)

John Grierson

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pp. 453-459

Documentary is a clumsy description, but let it stand. The French, who first used the term only meant travelogue. It gave them a solid high-sounding excuse for the shimmying (and otherwise discursive) exoticisms of the Vieux Colombier.7 Meanwhile documentary has gone on its way. From shimmying exoticisms it has gone on to...

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Manifesto on the Documentary Film (UK, 1933)

Oswell Blakeston

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pp. 460-461

Years ago the documentary film had value because it presented us with facts: from the documents of four or five years ago it was possible to learn.
We believed, then, that the document film had a rigorous and vigorous future: the clearer presentation of valuable information seemed to define the development of the filmic...

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Declaration of the Group of Thirty (France, 1953)

Jean Painlevé, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Alain Resnais, Alexandre Astruc, Georges Franju, Pierre Kast, Jean Mitry, and thirty-seven others

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pp. 461-462

The short film was struggling to stay alive. Today, its death has been decided.
The French School of short films is distinguished by its style, by its demeanor, by the ambition of its subjects. French short films have often found favor with the public. They play the world over. There is not an international festival where they do not play a large...

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Initial Statement of the Newsreel (USA, 1967)

New York Newsreel

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pp. 462-463

These films will be available to anyone. We hope that their relevance will attract audiences who are not usually reached. But they will reach such audiences only if they are brought to them by people who understand what it is to organize, and how to use such films to increase and activate social and political awareness...

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Nowsreel, or the Potentialities of a Political Cinema (USA, 1970)

Robert Kramer, New York Newsreel

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pp. 463-464

To all film-makers who accept the limited, socially determined rules of clarity, of exposition, who think that films must use the accepted vocabulary to “convince,” we say essentially: you only work, whatever your reasons, whatever the mechanisms which maintain stability through re-integration; your films are helping to hold it all together, and...

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Documentary Filmmakers Make Their Case (Poland, 1971)

Bohdan Kosiński, Krzysztof Kieślowski, and Tomasz Zygadło

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pp. 464-469

The discussion on documentary film that started at the Eleventh Festival of Short Films in Krakow, and which then moved to the daily and weekly press, was based on the effective (and for many probably convenient) strategy of opposing the young and old filmmakers of the WFD.¹³ The Festival’s commentators became concerned with the...

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The Asian Filmmakers at Yamagata YIDFF Manifesto (Japan, 1989)

Kidlat Tahimik, Stephen Teo, Serge Daney, Manop Udomdej and eight others

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pp. 469-470

We, the Asian filmmakers present here, at the Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival ’89, call attention to the sad absence of any Asian film in the competition. While this is not the fault of this festival, it puts into focus the fact that major obstacles exist in the making of relevant and interesting documentary films in the...

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Minnesota Declaration: Truth and Fact in Documentary Cinema (Germany, 1999)

Werner Herzog

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pp. 471-472

1. By dint of declaration the so-called Cinema Verité is devoid of Verité. It reaches a merely superficial truth, the truth of accountants.

2. One well-known representative of Cinema Verité declared publicly that truth can be easily found by taking a camera and trying to be honest. He resembles the night watchman at the Supreme Court who...

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Defocus Manifesto (Denmark, 2000)

Lars von Trier

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pp. 472-473

We are searching for something fictional, not factual. Fiction is limited by our imagination and facts by our insight, and the part of the world that we are seeking cannot be encompassed by a “story” or embraced from an “angle.”
The subject matter we seek is found in the same reality that inspires fiction-makers...

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Kill the Documentary as We Know It (USA, 2002)

Jill Godmilow

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pp. 473-476

Somewhat ironically, but in all seriousness as well, I hurl out a dogma for future nonfiction filmmaking—one that questions the usefulness of the classical realist documentary form as an instrument for publicly shared knowledge.
I interrogate this system of representation that is said to produce sober, unauthored texts—cinematic texts in which...

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Ethnographic Cinema (EC): A Manifesto / A Provocation (USA, 2003)

Jay Ruby

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pp. 476-477

So-called ethnographic films are, in fact, films about culture and not films that pictorially convey ethnographic knowledge. They are produced by professional filmmakers who have little or no knowledge of anthropology and by anthropologists who thoughtlessly follow the dictates of documentary realism...

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Reality Cinema Manifesto (Russia, 2005)

Vitaly Manskiy

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pp. 478-479

1. No script. Script and reality are incompatible. Before shooting there shall be determined only the place where the film-making process shall start, sometimes together with characters of the film and the general idea. As of the start of shooting, only real events shall determine the course of dramatic concept. *meanwhile, reality...

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Documentary Manifesto (USA, 2008)

Albert Maysles

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pp. 479-480

As a documentarian I happily place my fate and faith in reality. It is my caretaker, the provider of subjects, themes, experiences—all endowed with the power of truth and the romance of discovery. And the closer I adhere to reality the more honest and authentic my tales. After all, knowledge of the real world is exactly what we need to better...

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China Independent Film Festival Manifesto: Shamans * Animals (People’s Republic of China, 2011)

By several documentary filmmakers who participated and also who did not participate in the festival

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pp. 480-484

1/ Demand that film critics buy their own DVDs—Xue Jianqiang

2/ Reject how film critics have become the definers and arbiters of the morals and ethics of documentary film. Rather than simply passing judgement on documentary ethics, film critics should foster a film critique based on artistic intuition that, rooted in intrinsic film...

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7. States, Dictatorships, the Comitern, and Theocracies

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pp. 485-489

This chapter considers a series of manifestos that, unlike the others in the book, are State, or quasi-State, sanctioned. In these instances, the manifestos written by members of governments and religious institutions function as means by which to mobilize the cinema for the goals of the State, be they national, political, or theocratic ones. A key...

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Capture the Film! Hints on the Use of, Out of the Use of, Proletarian Film Propaganda (USA, 1925)

Willi Münzenberg

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pp. 490-492

Ferdinand Lasalle characterized the press as the new major power. The same can be said of the film, which, in some countries, has already achieved a greater significance than the press itself. The total attendance in the movie theaters of England, France and the United States is perhaps even today greater than the total number of newspaper readers...

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The Legion of Decency Pledge (USA, 1934)

Archbishop John McNicholas

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p. 492

In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. I condemn all indecent and immoral motion pictures, and those which glorify crime or criminals. I promise to do all that I can to strengthen public opinion against the production of indecent and immoral films, and to unite with all who protest against them. I...

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Creative Film (Germany, 1935)

Joseph Goebbels

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pp. 493-495

It is the most noble task of art to bridge the gap between politics and economics. Art supplies the people with a solid ground on which they can disregard the conflicts of their interests and work constructively together, hand in hand. Art is the most noble cultural expression of a nation. Each nation creates its own specific art and style. Even the greatest...

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Vigilanti Cura: On Motion Pictures (Vatican City, 1936)

Pope Pius XI

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pp. 495-504

In following with vigilant eye, as Our Pastoral Office requires, the beneficent work of Our Brethren in the Episcopate and of the faithful, it has been highly pleasing to Us to learn of the fruits already gathered and of the progress which continues to be made by that prudent initiative launched more than two years ago as a holy crusade against...

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Four Cardinal Points of A Revolução de Maio (Portugal, 1937)

António Lopes Ribeiro

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pp. 505-506

I made this film in order to:
1. Serve the Portuguese cinema.
In spite of the efforts of about 10 people of good will, our cinema should still be considered infantile and I use the term in a non-pejorative sense. On the contrary, it is precisely in childhood that we may find a great spontaneity, freshness which is to be the measure of...

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From On the Art of Cinema (North Korea, 1973)

Kim Jong-il

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pp. 506-514

If cinematic art is to be developed to meet the requirements of the Juche age, it is necessary to bring about a fundamental change in film-making. From the time of the emergence of cinema art to this day, many changes and advances have been made in artistic and technical matters, as a result of the changes in the times and social institutions, but...

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8. Archives, Museums, Festivals, and Ciinematheques

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pp. 515-519

Publicly and privately funded institutions, film archives, museums, film festivals, and cinematheques hold quite a different status, in regard to the manifestos written on their behalf, than do those of solitary artists or groups of artists. Yet because of the cinema’s fairly recent emergence, its status as both art and popular entertainment, and the rise...

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A New Source of History: The Creation of a Depository for Historical Cinematography (Poland/France, 1898)

Bolesław Matuszewski

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pp. 520-523

It would be a mistake to believe that all the categories of representational documents which come to the aid of History have a place in Museums and Libraries. Unlike medallions, illuminated pottery, sculpture, etc., which are collected and classified, photography, for example, has no special department. To speak the truth, the documents it provides are...

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The Film Prayer (USA, c. 1920)

A. P. Hollis

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pp. 523-524

I am film, not steel; O user, have mercy. I front dangers whenever I travel the whirling wheels of mechanism. Over the sprocket wheels, held tight by the idlers, I am forced by the motor’s magic might. If a careless hand misthreads me, I have no alternative but to go to my death. If the pull on the takeup reel is too violent, I am torn to shreds. If dirt...

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The Film Society (UK, 1925)

Iris Barry

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pp. 524-525

The Film Society has been founded in the belief that there are in this country a large number of people who regard the cinema with the liveliest interest, and who would welcome an opportunity seldom afforded the general public of witnessing films of intrinsic merit, whether new or old.
It is felt to be of the utmost importance that films of the type proposed...

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Filmliga Manifesto (The Netherlands, 1927)

Joris Ivens (Technical Advisor), Henrik Scholte (Chairman), Men’no Ter Bbaak (Secr. Treasurer), Hans Ivens (Secretary), Charlie Toorop, L. J. Jordan, Cees Laseur, Hans Van Meerten, Ed Pelster (Technical Advisor)

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pp. 525-526

Film is at stake.
Once in a hundred times we see film, the rest of the time we see movies.
The herd, commercial cliches, America, Kitsch.
In this arena films and movies are natural opponents. We believe in the pure...

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Statement of Purposes (USA, 1948)

Amos Vogel, Cinema 16

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pp. 527-528

CINEMA 16 is a cultural, non-profit organization devoted to the presentation of outstanding 16mm documentary, educational, scientific and experimental films.
CINEMA 16 endeavours to serve a double purpose. By its screening of superior and avant-garde films, it will contribute to the growing appreciation of film as one of the most...

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The Importance of Film Archives (UK, 1948)

Ernest Lindgren

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pp. 529-532

The film is a new kind of historical record; the film is a new art form. True; but unless the records are kept, history will gain nothing; and unless technicians and the film-going public have the opportunity to study the finest film works of the past, and the cinema is able to acquire something in the nature of a tradition, it will be seriously limited in its...

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A Plea for a Canadian Film Archive (Canada, 1949)

Hye Bossin

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pp. 533-534

Canada, even though it has the largest and most successful documentary organisation in the world as a government agency, has yet no film archives.6 Yet there are many Canadian films dating back to the early 1900s. Some were made by government departments, others were shot for the CPR by Guy Bradford, a cameraman imported...

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Open Letter to Film-Makers of the World (USA, 1966)

Jonas Mekas

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pp. 534-539

I would like to speak to you through this open letter. Although some specific feelings expressed may be personal, I’ll be speaking in the name of the independent film-makers of America who have delegated me to do so. You don’t often see us at film festivals. Very often, the “independent” American films that you see at Pesaro, at Oberhausen, or...

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A Declaration from the Committee for the Defense of La Cinémathèque française (France, 1968)

Committee for the Defense of La Cinémathèque française: Jean Renoir, Alain Resnais, Henri Alekan, Jean-Luc Godard, Pierre Kast, Jacques Rivette, François Truffaut, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, J.-G. Albicocco, Alexandre Astruc, Roland Barthes, Robert Benayoun, Claude Berri, Mag Modard, Robert Bresson, Marcel Brion, Philippe de Broca, Marcel Carné, Claude Chabrol, H. Chapier, Henri-Georges Clouzot, Philippe Labro, Jean-Paul le Chanois, Claude Lelouch, Claude Mauriac, Jean Rouch

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pp. 539-540

The Committee for the Defense of la Cinémathèque française proposes: 1) the reestablishment of the normal functioning of la Cinémathèque française, 2) to take all actions to respect the integrity of la Cinémathèque française and its liberty. The Committee will continue its activity beyond the reinstatement of Henri Langlois as Artistic and Technical...

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Filmmakers versus the Museum of Modern Art (USA, 1969)

Hollis Frampton, Ken Jacobs, and Michael Snow

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pp. 540-543

Gentlemen:
As filmmakers, we wish to bring to your attention the following points concerning the Museum of Modern Art as a whole, and its Film Department in particular:
1) The Museum’s repeated assertion of its own “private” nature, in reply to a variety of requests from the art community on behalf of the whole community, is socially...

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Anthology Film Archives Manifesto (USA, 1970)

P. Adams Sitney

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pp. 543-544

When it opened on December 1, 1970, Anthology Film Archives issued the following manifesto, which summarized its polemical position:
The cinematheques of the world generally collect and show the multiple manifestations of film: as document, history, industry, mass communication. . . . Anthology Film Archives is the first film museum exclusively...

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Toward an Ethnographic Film Archive (USA, 1971)

Alan Lomax

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pp. 544-554

One of the great opportunities and urgent tasks of this generation is for the anthropologist to use the sound film to make a complete record of the life ways of the human species.
The human race has come to a big turning in the road—to the successful climax of man’s long effort to control his physical environment. Many, many ingenious systems...

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Brooklyn Babylon Cinema Manifesto (USA, 1998)

Scott Miller Berry and Stephen Kent Jusick

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pp. 555-556

In these days of Mayoral fiat and rampant real estate speculation (the result of runaway capitalism), the people of New York City find themselves under attack in our own home, and alienated from our happily hurried way of life. This screening sets out to demonstrate how the excesses of the 80’s homophobia, overspending, genocide by inaction are not so...

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Don’t Throw Film Away: The FIAF 70th Anniversary Manifesto (France, 2008)

Hisashi Okajima and La fédération internationale des archives du fi lm Manifesto Working Group

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pp. 556-558

Motion picture film forms an indispensable part of our cultural heritage and a unique record of our history and our daily lives. Film archives, both public and private, are the organizations responsible for acquiring, safeguarding, documenting and making films available to current and future generations for study and pleasure. The International...

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The Lindgren Manifesto: The Film Curator of the Future (Italy, 2010)

Paolo Cherchi Usai

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pp. 558-559

1. Restoration is not possible and it is not desirable, regardless of its object or purpose. Obedience to this principle is the most responsible approach to film preservation.
2. Preserve everything is a curse to posterity. Posterity won’t be grateful for sheer...

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Film Festival Form: A Manifesto (UK, 2012)

Mark Cousins

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pp. 559-562

In Italy in the 1930s, Mussolini launched the world’s first film festival, Venice, to celebrate fascist ideas and aesthetics. To counter this, two alternative festivals were launched, one in a former fishing town, Cannes, and one in the “Athens of the North,” a centre of the Enlightenment, Edinburgh. • Now there are thousands of film...

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9. SOUNDS AND SILENCE

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pp. 563-565

The four manifestos that compose this chapter all revolve around the question of sound in the cinema. Perhaps it is not surprising that three of the four were written on the cusp of sound cinema. Many filmmakers, critics, and theorists were convinced that the advent of sound would strip away from the cinema its specificity and its universalism. Indeed...

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A Statement on Sound (USSR, 1928)

Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Grigori Alexandrov

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pp. 566-567

The dream of a sound film has come true. With the invention of a practical sound film, the Americans have placed it on the first step of substantial and rapid realization. Germany is working intensively in the same direction. The whole world is talking about the silent thing that has learned to talk.
We who work in the U.S.S.R. are aware that...

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A Rejection of the Talkies (USA, 1931)

Charlie Chaplin

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pp. 568-569

Because the silent or nondialogue picture has been temporarily pushed aside in the hysteria attending the introduction of speech by no means indicates that it is extinct or that the motion picture screen has seen the last of it. City Lights is evidence of this. In New York it is presented at the George M. Cohan Theater beginning Feb. 6. It is...

A Dialogue on Sound: A Manifesto (UK, 1934)

Basil Wright and B. Vivian Braun

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pp. 570-572

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Amalfi Manifesto (Italy, 1967)

Michelangelo Antonioni, Bernardo Bertolucci, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Gillo Pontecorvo, Marco Bellocchio, Vittorio Cottafavi, Vittorio De Sica, Alberto Lattuada, Alfredo Leonardi, Valentino Orsini, Brunello Rondi, Francesco Rosi, Paolo Taviani, Vittorio Taviani

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p. 572

Contemporary developments in theoretical studies on the sound film imply the need to take up a position at the outset against the systematic abuse of dubbing, which consistently compromises the expressive values of film. The actors themselves acquire from the habit of post-synchronisation (generally carried out with other people’s...

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10. The Digital Revolution

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pp. 573-575

The manifestos in this chapter address, in various ways, the rise of digital technology and its impact on the cinema. Many, responding to the challenges set out by the Dogme ’95 manifesto (which offers a seemingly utopian potential for cinema when conveyed through digital video and handheld camera immediacy, with ensuing challenges to feature-film

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Culture: Intercom and Expanded Cinema: A Proposal and Manifesto (USA, 1966)

Stan VanDerBeek

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pp. 576-579

I should like to share with you a vision I have had concerning motion pictures. This vision concerns the immediate use of motion pictures . . . or expanded cinema, as a tool for world communication . . . and opens the future of what I like to call “Ethos-Cinema.” Motion pictures may be the most important means for world communication. At this...

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The Digital Revolution and the Future Cinema (Iran, 2000)

Samira Makhmalbaf

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pp. 580-585

Cinema has always been at the mercy of political power, particularly in the East, financial capital, particularly in the West, and the concentration of means of production, anywhere in the world. The individual creativity of artists throughout the twentieth century has much suffered from the whimsical practices of this odd combination of forces. The situation...

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The Pluginmanifesto (UK, 2001)

Ana Kronschnabl

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pp. 586-588

First came the Dogme 95 manifesto, where a collective of directors founded in Copenhagen in spring 1995 expressed the goal of countering “certain tendencies” towards “cosmetics” over content in the cinema today. They remarked, “Today a technological storm is raging, the result of which will be the ultimate democratisation of the...

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Digital Dekalogo: A Manifesto for a Filmless Philippines (The Philippines, 2003)

Khavn de la Cruz

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pp. 588-590

Film is dead. It is dead as long as the economy is dead, when public taste and creativity are dead, when the imagination of multinational movie companies is dead. At millions of pesos per film production, there is not going to be a lot of happy days for the genuine filmmaker, the true artist who wants to make movies, not brainless displays of breasts...

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11. Aesthetics and the Futures of Cinema

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pp. 591-594

Although prophecies about the future of the cinema and its imminent death emerged almost as soon as the cinema itself, in recent years, with the arrival of digital technology and the celebration/wake of the centenary of the medium in 1995, they have taken on a new urgency. This urgency is tied to changes in the ways that films are produced...

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The Birth of the Sixth Art (France, 1911)

Ricciotto Canudo

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pp. 595-603

It is surprising to find how everyone has, either by fare or some universal telepathy, the same aesthetic conception of the natural environment. From the most ancient people of the east to those more recently discovered by our geographical heroes, we can find in all peoples the same manifestations of the aesthetic sense; Music, with its...

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The Birth of a New Avant Garde: La caméra-stylo (France, 1948)

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pp. 603-607

One cannot help noticing that something is happening in the cinema at the moment. Our sensibilities have been in danger of getting blunted by those everyday films which, year in year out, show their tired and conventional faces to the world.
The cinema of today is getting a new face. How can one tell? Simply by using one’s...

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From Preface to Film (UK, 1954)

Raymond Williams

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pp. 607-613

Our enquiry in this book springs from an attempt to solve, in practice, problems of present-day work in the film. We are presenting a case for what we believe to be a new approach to film-making. We discuss theory, but this is not a text-book of theory of the film; it is, rather, intended as a starting point for actual production, and may be regarded...

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The Snakeskin (Sweden, 1965)

Ingmar Bergman

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pp. 614-616

Artistic creation has always, to me, manifested itself as hunger. I have acknowledged this need with a certain satisfaction but I have never, in all my life, asked myself why this hunger has arisen and craved appeasement. In recent years, as it diminishes and is transformed into something else, I have become anxious to find out the cause of my...

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Manifesto (Italy, 1965)

Roberto Rossellini, Bernardo Bertolucci, Tinto Brass, Gianni Amico, Adriano Apra, Gian Vittorio Baldi, and Vittorio Cottafavi

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pp. 616-617

It is among the most dramatic features of modern civilisation that the vast improvement in the standard of living, resulting from scientific and technical advances, has brought with it, not a taste of happiness and moral well-being, but a disconcerting impression of disturbance and sickness. There is a vague feeling abroad that our civilization is only...

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Manifesto on the Release of La Chinoise (France, 1967)

Jean-Luc Godard

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p. 618

Fifty years after the October Revolution, the American industry rules cinema the world over. There is nothing much to add to this statement of fact. Except that on our own modest level we too should provoke two or three Vietnams in the bosom of the vast Hollywood-Cinecittá-Mosfilm-Pinewood-etc. empire, and, both economically and aesthetically...

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Direct Action Cinema Manifesto (USA, 1985)

Rob Nilsson

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pp. 618-619

. . . a practice created to allow actors and technicians high freedom and deep responsibility to create memorable cinema. It is a dynamic jazz ensemble of actors, camera, sound, directors, and editors that creates and interprets together, seeking the unexpected, the extraordinary, the miracles only a well-prepared combo can play...

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Remodernist Film Manifesto (USA, 2008)

Jesse Richards

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pp. 619-622

1. Art manifestos, despite the good intentions of the writer should always “be taken with a grain of salt” as the cliché goes, because they are subject to the ego, pretensions, and plain old ignorance and stupidity of their authors. This goes all the way back to the Die Brücke manifesto of 1906, and continues...

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The Age of Amateur Cinema Will Return (People’s Republic of China, 2010)

Jia Zhangke

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pp. 622-624

In a restaurant far away from downtown Pusan, Tony Rayns discussed with me some issues on films on behalf of the British magazine Sight & Sound.
For some reason, conversations about films always get people trapped into sentimental feelings. In order to get out of this mood, Tony brought up a new topic and asked me, “What do you...

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Appendix. What Is a “Manifesto Film”?

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pp. 625-628

Despite the increasing preponderance of the term manifesto film in both film criticism and theory, I don’t believe that, as a discipline, we have fully addressed the question of whether there is such a thing as a “manifesto film.”¹ One might assume that there must be such a thing, as the past hundreds of pages contain a litany of manifestos all calling new forms of...

Notes

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pp. 529-634

Acknowledgments of Permissions

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pp. 635-640

Index

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pp. 641-652