Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Table of Contents

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pp. vii-x

From the Editors

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pp. xi-xviii

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Preface

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pp. xix-xxiv

This book is the first of a two-part collection of essays on the cultural history of Russia between 1914 and 1922, both of which form part of a larger series on Russian history during the Great War, Revolution, and Civil War.1 The two books that comprise the culture “volume” of the series are intended to...

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Revolution, Culture, and Cultural Policy from Late Tsarism to Early Soviet Years

Christopher Read

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pp. 1-22

Speaking at the International Cultural Summit held during the Edinburgh Festival in August 2012, Haris Pasovic, artistic director of the Sarajevo East West Center made a large claim. “Culture,” he said, “is a primary need as much as food and sex.”1 Even though almost all children like to draw and...

Popular Culture

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pp. 23-24

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Mass Culture and the Culture of the Masses in Russia, 1914-22

Vladimir P. Buldakov

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pp. 25-52

Due to the all-encompassing nature of the First World War, Russian social space needed to be reorganized on the basis of common values. The path to this reorganization lay in cultural initiatives capable of overcoming both the elitist isolation of the upper social strata and the traditionalist reserve...

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Worker Culture(s) during War and Revolution, 1914–20

Page Herrlinger

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pp. 53-84

In September 1918, delegates to the first All-Russian Conference of Proletarian- Cultural Enlightenment Organizations laid out a platform for what would be known as the Proletkul´t movement, just as it was being unified on the national level. As one delegate later noted: ...

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Fade to Black: The Russian Commercial Film Industry during War and Revolution

Denise J. Youngblood

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pp. 85-100

By the time the lights went out on the Russian “bourgeois” film industry at the end of 1920, as the last boats carrying White Russian refugees left the Black Sea ports, a remarkably rich and original body of work had been created, of which little, sadly, survives. Russian cinema came to maturity during war and...

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Hypnosis in Russian Popular Culture during the Era of War and Revolution

Julia Mannherz

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pp. 101-118

Hypnosis was a hot topic in Russian mainstream publishing throughout the era of war and revolution, but it was never a simple phenomenon which allowed contemporaries to agree in their assessments of it. Precisely because of its contentious character, the technique lends itself for an analysis of continuity and change across the political caesuras of 1914, 1917, and 1921...

The Arts

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pp. 119-120

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The Feast in the Time of Plague: The Russian Art World, Easel Painting, and the Experience of War and Revolution, 1914–22

Aaron J. Cohen

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pp. 121-138

Artists in Russia faced a new world with the outbreak of World War I. In the decades after the Great Reforms of the 1860s, imperial Russian artistic life had kept pace with the steady unfolding of civil society.1 Russian painters of this time understood well the effects of social, political, and cultural change on...

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Press Photography in Russia’s Great War and Revolution

Christopher Stolarski

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pp. 139-164

On the eve of the Great War, press photography in Russia appeared primarily in weekly magazines. Most of these publications first hit news stands around 1900 as literary supplements to daily newspapers. But as readers grew more interested in current events, magazine editors increasingly replaced essays...

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Russian Architecture and the Cataclysm of the First World War

William C. Brumfield

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pp. 165-188

The Russian architectural profession during the decade before the First World War had entered a period of remarkable growth and development. Despite substantial structural and social problems in the Russian Empire’s rapid economic expansion, architects and engineers looked toward an energetic...

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Center and Periphery in Russian Jewish Culture during the Crisis of 1914–22

Anke Hilbrenner

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pp. 189-208

Most avant-garde art around the turn of the century was Russian, and from there it was transferred abroad and “shaped the modern world.”1 This leading role was especially true for Russian Jewish art. Even though the Jews in the Russian Empire were heavily discriminated against, Russian Jewish culture...

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In Search of the Truth about the Great War: The Theme of War in the Works of Five Russian Writers

Ben Hellman

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pp. 209-232

“The first victim of war is truth.” This saying, initially attributed to Aeschylus, became topical in connection with the First World War. Key roles in the “killing” of the truth were attributed not only to the statesmen and the generals, but also to the intelligentsia. The repressed truth about the Great War, as...

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Contemplating War, Caught Up in Revolution: A Survey of Russian Poetry, 1914–22

J. Alexander Ogden

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pp. 233-260

Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the poet Zinaida Gippius—a Symbolist known up to that point for her apocalyptic mysticism and provocative style— started writing letters in verse to soldiers at the front. Written in a sing-song, pseudo-folk style, such as that used for lubok broadside prints, these poems...

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Russian Theater and the Crisis of War and Revolution, 1914–22

Murray Frame

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pp. 261-282

Most histories of Russian theater portray the 1917 Revolution as a major turning point, and the reasons for this historiographical consensus are not difficult to fathom: the Revolution radically altered the political context in which all the arts functioned, particularly after the October Revolution. For some...

Institutions: Education, the Orthodox Church, and Museums

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pp. 283-284

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Higher Education in Russia during the First World War and Revolution

Anatolii E. Ivanov

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pp. 285-314

This article treats the theme of science, broadly defined, during the First World War and Revolution. The subject is important because higher education was the keystone of Russia’s scientific and intellectual establishment. Its emergent academic institutions, with their infrastructure of experimental laboratories, ...

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The Russian School System and School Students during the Wars and Revolutions of 1914–22

Evgenii M. Balashov

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pp. 315-348

When the First World War began, the Russian school system still exhibited many of the shortcomings that had emerged over the course of its development. The most pressing of these shortcomings were stubborn remnants of the class system, detachment of the majority of secondary schools from the demands...

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The Russian Orthodox Church during the First World War and Revolutionary Turmoil, 1914–21

Pavel G. Rogoznyi

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pp. 349-376

From the very beginning of the First World War, the Russian Orthodox Church was actively involved in the patriotic movement that drew in a significant proportion of the Russian population. From the pulpits came sermons on the “Teutonic threat” and “German dominance.” Churches held prayers for “the...

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The Church’s Revolutionary Moment: Diocesan Congresses and Grassroots Politics in 1917

Catherine Evtuhov

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pp. 377-402

The role of religious institutions and movements in revolutions is one of the most fraught issues in modern history. The assault on the church was conducted with exceptional violence and fury in 18th-century France and 20th-century Russia and Spain; while faith has also, notably in our own...

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Cultural Heritage and “the People’s Property”: Museums in Russia, 1914–21

Susan Smith

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pp. 403-424

During the early years of World War I, the artist and preservationist Nikolai Rerikh published several articles in Petrograd addressing different war-related threats faced by Russian antiquities and historic sites. He noted the German destruction and theft of artifacts from Belgium; reported rumors that...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 425-426

Image Plates

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pp. 427-466