Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Series Foreword

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pp. ix-x

Humans now influence all biological and physical systems of the planet. Almost no species, land area, or part of the oceans has remained unaffected by the expansion of the human species. Recent scientific findings suggest that the entire earth system now operates outside the normal state exhibited over at least the past 500,000 years. Yet at the same time, it is apparent that the institutions, organizations,...

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xiv

Students of domestic politics have lavished attention on matters of public administration since the nineteenth century. Research on the role of administrative agencies emerged as a coherent fi eld of study even before the advent of modern political science. During the last forty to fi fty years, those interested in such matters have added a concern for bureaucratic politics or the political interactions that take place within and between...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

It ’ s been a long road. I owe a great debt to many friends, family members, mentors, and colleagues for their varied forms of support for this project over the years. I am especially grateful to my dissertation advisor and friend Kate O ’ Neill. Her scholarship, commitment to graduate advising, and strength of character in the face of immense challenges continue to be a source of great inspiration. Thank you, Kate....

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xix-xx

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1 Introduction: Secretariats as Overlap Managers

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pp. 1-20

From the outside of an organization, office secretaries are nearly invisible. Simply doing the bidding of their bosses, they take instructions, write up memos, and make appointments for a controlling principal. They have no obvious source of power and are on the receiving end of authority. They appear to play, in other words, a derivative or secondary role. To understand how decision making unfolds within a professional office,...

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2 Secretariats in Theory and Practice

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pp. 21-40

A secretariat is most simply an international bureaucracy. It is the administrative structure that enables an organization, such as the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), or the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to operate. Yet secretariats are typically discounted as political actors in their own right.2 Due to their administrative role, secretariats are assumed to be functionaries...

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3 The Analytics of Influence

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pp. 41-66

This chapter lays out the theoretical underpinnings and analytical framework deployed in this study to understand secretariat infl uence. The first half of the chapter explains how the core theoretical concepts of power, authority, and influence are understood and deployed in this book. It presents a new theory of secretariat influence that builds on emerging understandings of power in global governance. The second half of the...

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4 Origins of Overlap Management in the Biodiversity Regime Complex

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pp. 67-92

Biodiversity loss is an intractable global environmental problem. Despite some of the oldest international regimes, widespread nongovernmental organization (NGO) activity, and a plethora of national-level institutions to address species and habitat loss, biodiversity loss continues to accelerate at an alarming rate. Current extinction rates are estimated to be 1,000 to 10,000 times faster than the background extinction rate derived from...

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5 Marketing the Climate-Biodiversity Interface

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pp. 93-120

Scientists have long discussed the current and projected impacts of climate change on the decline and loss of species due to increasing stressors on ecological systems (Parry et al. 2007). While this causal relationship between climate change and biodiversity loss is the dominant discursive frame of biodiversity-climate overlap in the scientific literature, political actors seeking to jump on the “ climate change bandwagon ”...

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6 Trade-Environment Politics at the WTO

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pp. 121-146

Overlap between trade and environmental issues hinges on the fact that trade liberalization contributes to environmental degradation.1 More trade means more development and more consumption and, as a result, more resource use and more waste. Managing overlap is politically diffi cult because both environmental protection and economic development are laudable normative objectives, yet their relationship is colored by this...

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7 The Limits of Secretariat Influence

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pp. 147-178

This final case examines how the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Secretariat managed overlap with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). CITES and FAO overlap in their work surrounding governance of marine and freshwater species that have commercial value, or as they are commonly referred to by both organizations, “ commercially exploited aquatic species. ” Whereas CITES...

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8 Conclusions

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pp. 179-196

Secretariats are more than administrative lackeys; they shape global governance in important ways. This book argues that in the messy world of overlapping regimes, secretariats emerge not simply as state functionaries or appendages, but as actors in their own right. Fundamentally, the book shows that secretariats infl uence politics by changing power relations between states. Although secretariats may not enjoy the...

Appendix A: Case-Specific Methods

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pp. 197-200

Appendix B: Details of Coding Procedure Used in Chapter 5

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pp. 201-204

Notes

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pp. 205-212

References

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pp. 213-234

Index

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pp. 235-246