Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-2

While writing is often a solitary endeavor, assembling a collection is not. We each put in our share of hours writing and editing, but we had many people—our partners and other family members, friends, colleagues, and editors—literally and figuratively at our side. Without them, this book...

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Introduction. Glad to be 100: The Making of a Children’s Classic

Lydia Kokkola and Roxanne Harde

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pp. 3-24

Eleanor H. Porter’s Pollyanna was first published as a serial in a weekly journal, the Christian Herald, from 27 November 1912 until 19 February 1913.² Later in 1913, Pollyanna was published in book form. This story of an impoverished orphan girl, who travels from America’s western frontier...

Part 1: Pollyanna’s World

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1 “Then just being glad isn’t pro-fi-ta-ble?”: Mourning, Class, and Benevolence in Pollyanna

Roxanne Harde

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pp. 27-43

As early as the tenth short chapter of Eleanor H. Porter’s Pollyanna, the novel’s eponymous hero has moved from profound loneliness to being so thoroughly contented that she “often told her aunt, joyously, how very happy [her days] were” (86). Pollyanna’s joy has come, in the main, from...

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2 “Aggressive femininity”: The Ambiguous Heteronormativity of Pollyanna

Laura M. Robinson

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pp. 44-57

In Secret Gardens: A Study of the Golden Age of Children’s Literature (1985), Humphrey Carpenter laments the appearance of Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women on the literary scene, not because it is inferior in his eyes, but because it begot a generation of “happy happy” girls...

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3 “Matter out of place”: Dirt, Disorder, and Ecophobia

Anthony Pavlik

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pp. 58-76

At first glance, Pollyanna might not seem like fertile ground for an ecocritical reading. The novel’s focus is very domestic, and “writing nature” as such is conspicuously absent. The literary motif of nature, however, is often seen in novels of the latter part of the nineteenth century and into...

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4 “Ice-cream Sundays”: Food and the Liminal Spaces of Class in Pollyanna

Samantha Christensen

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pp. 77-95

At the beginning of Pollyanna, Nancy is sent to retrieve Pollyanna from the train station and, intrigued by the impression that her aunt may be wealthy, Pollyanna asks Nancy, “Does Aunt Polly have ice-cream Sundays?” (20). Pollyanna equates wealth with luxurious foods such as ice...

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5 At Home in Nature: Negotiating Ecofeminist Politics in Heidi and Pollyanna

Monika Elbert

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pp. 96-118

There is a tradition in children’s literature of connecting orphan girls to redemptive and healing qualities to effect positive social change. Johanna Spyri’s Heidi as the progenitor of such a character is often ignored, perhaps because of the privileging of Anglo-American girls’ texts in the canon of...

Part 2: Ideological Pollyanna

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6 The “veritable bugle-call”: An Examination of Pollyanna through the Lens of Twentieth-Century Protestantism

Ashley N. Reese

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pp. 121-136

Eleanor H. Porter’s Pollyanna is a text that reflects the United States at a crossroads: the conservative 1800s had ended and the secularizing influence of the world wars was yet to come. The so-called Golden Age of Anglophone children’s literature with its abundance of “quality” texts...

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7 Pollyanna, the Power of Gladness, and the Philosophy of Pragmatism

Janet Wesselius

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pp. 137-155

What struck me upon reading Pollyanna again as an adult is how the glad game resonates with the philosophy of American pragmatism. Pragmatism is widely considered to be the only philosophy indigenous to America, and it continues as a significant philosophical school beyond...

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8 When Pollyanna Did Not Grow Up: Girlhood and the Innocent Nation

Dorothy Karlin

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pp. 156-171

When Eleanor Hodgman Porter published Pollyanna in 1913, the United States was attempting to alter its international role and, in order to do so, its image. In political rhetoric and in literature, the nation had long been portrayed as the offspring of European countries, Britain’s rebellious son...

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9 Pollyanna: Intersectionalities of the Child,the Region, and the Nation

Patricia Oman

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pp. 172-188

When the orphaned Pollyanna Whittier first sees her ugly attic bedroom in the beautiful Beldingsville, Vermont, mansion where she has come to live, she somehow overcomes her initial disappointment by being “glad” (15). Even though the room is unadorned and unbearably hot, she is...

Part 3: Adapted Pollyanna

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10 The Gospel of Good Cheer: Innocence, Spiritual Healing, and Patriotism in Mary Pickford’s Pollyanna

Anke Brouwers

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pp. 191-210

The first movie adaptation of Eleanor Porter’s successful novel (and its Broadway adaptation by Catharine Chisholm Cushing) was released in 1920. The film was a financial success and its critical reception was predominantly one of praise. A review of the picture by Moving Picture Story...

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11 “Almost a golden glow around it”: The Filmic Nostalgia of Walt Disney’s Pollyanna

K. Brenna Wardell

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pp. 211-226

The 1960 film adaptation of Eleanor H. Porter’s Pollyanna by Walt Disney Productions can be regarded as a work of recovery. The late 1950s was a period infused with nostalgia for turn-of-the-century American life and a desire to reconnect with a sense of innocent fun and community coherence...

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12 Pollyanna: Transformation in the Japanese Context

Mio Bryce

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pp. 227-245

Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s Pollyanna was introduced in 1916 to Japanese readers through Tsuchiko Hironaka’s translation, entitled Pareana [Pollyanna]. Published by a Christian publisher soon after its original publication in 1913, it was a complete translation, but the circulation and initial...

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13 Pollyanna in Turkey:Translating a Transnational Icon

Tanfer Emin Tunç

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pp. 246-262

Over the past eighty-five years, Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s Pollyanna (1913) has become one of the most popular, yet debated, American children’s novels in Turkey. In the English-speaking world, the protagonist has been embraced as an advocate for female children who mimics...

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Afterword: Lessons from Pollyanna

Marina Endicott

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pp. 263-266

I first read Pollyanna when I was nine, while my family was spending the summer in a borrowed Victorian rectory high on a hill in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. A verandah wrapped around the house, a comfortable apple tree hugged up against it, and inside, in a warren of dark corners and unused...

Contributors

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pp. 267-270

Index

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pp. 271-278