Cover

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Title Page, About the Series, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Introduction

Bill Kissane

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pp. 1-14

This book is about the reconstruction of national identities in European societies after internal war. While country-specific studies, and those of reconstruction projects after international wars, exist, how European societies have reconstructed their national identities after civil conflict has not been studied in a comparative way. Such wars invariably result in changes to the territorial bases of states, population movements, the collapse of old...

Part I Reconstructing the Nation in Interwar Europe

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Chapter 1. The Legacy of the Civil War of 1918 in Finland

Risto Alapuro

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pp. 17-42

The Finnish civil war broke out at the end of January 1918. Finland had been a grand duchy in the Russian empire since 1809 but proclaimed independence in December 1917, after the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.1 The military operations of the opposing camps, the Socialists and the bourgeois groups, escalated into a war but were launched in different localities. On the one hand, the Social Democrats, the biggest party in Parliament, which...

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Chapter 2. ‘‘A Nation Once Again’’? Electoral Competition and the Reconstruction of National Identity After the Irish Civil War, 1922–1923

Bill Kissane

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pp. 43-69

When the leaders of the Irish Free State achieved their civil war victory late in April 1923, they had to consider how to create an identification with the new Irish state. They didn’t spend much public money on commemorating their victory through public monuments, statues, and religious ceremonies (Dolan 2006). The stress was on symbols that highlighted the state’s roots in an older Gaelic civilization. It was, according to William Cosgrave, the...

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Chapter 3. State, Nation, and Violence in Spanish Civil War Reconstruction

Michael Richards

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pp. 70-90

A significant element of Francoist reconstruction in the aftermath of Spain’s civil war was the use of Republican prison labor to repair war-torn buildings and redevelop infrastructural projects such as canals and railways. The institution established in 1938 to administer the process whereby political detainees had their sentences reduced for each day that they labored in the name of the New State was the Foundation for the Redemption...

Part II Reconstruction Without Conflict Resolution

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Chapter 4. Enemies of the Nation—A Nation of Enemies: The Long Greek Civil War

Riki van Boeschoten

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pp. 93-120

Since the 1990s, Western agencies have put considerable effort into peace building after the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and generally in societies afflicted by civil war, such as Rwanda. This has given rise to an important body of work on postconflict reconstruction. Others have turned their attention to reconstruction after civil wars of the past. This burgeoning literature is problematic in a variety of ways. Often based on an essentialized...

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Chapter 5. Political Contention and the Reconstruction of Greek Identity in Cyprus, 1960–2003

Chares Demetriou

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pp. 121-149

Reconstruction is a word that evokes engineering projects. With that image in mind, the notion of identity reconstruction is problematic because social engineers, unlike other engineers, cannot control their projects. Is history not the product of unintended consequences? But even with no connotations of social engineering, identity reconstruction is a problematic notion inasmuch as it implies a teleology of national identity. The idea that successful...

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Chapter 6. Under (Re)Construction: The State, the Production of Identity, and the Countryside in the Kurdistan Region in Turkey

Joost Jongerden

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pp. 150-184

The subject of reconstruction efforts in war-affected societies, usually referred to as ‘‘postwar reconstruction,’’ is attracting increasing attention (MacGinty 2003, 601), yet few studies have taken up the issue of intimate linkages between reconstruction and the geopolitical objectives of the benefactor (Jacoby 2007, 521). This is strange, since, as Jacoby and James (2010, 534) emphasize, destruction and reconstruction can be linked to ‘‘grander...

Part III Reconstruction Under External Supervision

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Chapter 7. Ethnicity Pays: The Political Economy of Postconflict Nationalism in Bosnia-Herzegovina

Denisa Kostovicova and Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic

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pp. 187-212

On the twentieth anniversary of the onset of war in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the nationalist rhetoric of the leaders of the Serbian and Croatian communities eerily conjured up those political projects that plunged the multiethnic republic of former Yugoslavia into brutal conflict in 1992. The Bosnian Serb leadership’s threats to call an independence referendum for the Serb entity in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and their Bosnian Croat counterparts’...

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Chapter 8. Nationalism and Beyond: Memory and Identity in Postwar Kosovo/Kosova

Ruth Seifert

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pp. 213-244

After more than ten years of postwar reconstruction and more than three years after Kosovar independence, there is still no consensus as to the role of ethnicity and nationality in the Kosovar conflict. While the Yugoslav conflicts often were—and sometimes still are—framed as ‘‘ethnic’’ or ‘‘ethnonationalist,’’ what these terms refer to, and whether they fit developments on the ground—in Kosovo/Kosava1 or in ex-Yugoslavia...

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Chapter 9. Reconstruction Without Reconciliation: Is Northern Ireland a ‘‘Model’’?

James Hughes

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pp. 245-272

Elite discourses about the lessons to be drawn from the Northern Ireland conflict and the 1998 Belfast Agreement share many of the same concerns as those in academia concerned with designing fixes to violent conflict and postconflict reconciliation and reconstruction. A curious feature of the discourse about Northern Ireland being a ‘‘model’’ for conflict resolution is that it stresses process over outcome. There is much emphasis on ‘‘dialogue’’...

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Conclusion

Bill Kissane

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pp. 273-288

Civil wars have been seminal events in the histories of nations, but nowhere in the general literature on nationalism has this been studied. When conflict is within a nation the character of that nation changes. Yet this book also covers conflicts between groups with the potential to break up states. The challenge of reconstruction is different where there is no will to coexist. The literature on reconstruction does not deal with nationalism, in that it...

Contributors

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pp. 289-290

Index

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pp. 291-300

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 301-304

This book emerged out of an international workshop held at the London School of Economics in March 2011. I would like to express my thanks to the LSE Department of Government and to Professor Paul Kelly for awarding me a grant for this workshop from departmental funds. Thanks also to the LSE’s Annual Fund for additional funding. I am grateful in particular to Mina Moshkeri for producing such a wonderful set of maps, and to...