Cover

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Title Page, About the Series, Copyright

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Contents

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General Map Key

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pp. vii-viii

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Introduction: The Historiography of Schlieffen and the Schlieffen Plan

Hans Ehlert, Michael Epkenhans, Gerhard P. Gross

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pp. 1-16

Anniversaries generally provide a good opportunity to commemorate historical personalities or important events of the past. Such a personality is Field Marshal Count Alfred von Schlieffen. Despite the fact that he, contrary to his famous predecessor Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, did not fight a battle or directly conduct or win or lose a war, there is no escaping...

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The Sword and the Scepter: The Powers and the European System before 1914

Klaus Hildebrand

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pp. 17-42

When turning to the study of the relationship between the “scepter” (statecraft) and the “sword” (military tradecraft) during the run-up to the First World War, one encounters a dramatic event in connection with the July Crisis that took place on 31 July 1914 at the Ballhausplatz in Vienna. Even while German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg was reversing the policy...

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The Moltke Plan: A Modified Schlieffen Plan with Identical Aims?

Annika Mombauer

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pp. 43-66

In 1914, Germany went to war with the war plan of the younger Helmuth von Moltke, not with the Schlieffen Plan. An investigation into the nature of the “Moltke Plan” can be based on sources in which Moltke referred to the plan of his predecessor and outlined how his own plan differed from Schlieffen’s, thus enabling us to comment on both plans simultaneously. Such...

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The Schlieffen Plan—A War Plan

Robert T. Foley

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pp. 67-84

In an article published in War in History in 1999, Major Terence Zuber set out to challenge one of the longest-held interpretations about origins of the First World War.1 Zuber set himself the task of reexamining German war planning during the tenures of Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Helmuth von Moltke the Younger. Using previously unknown documents, he painted...

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There Was a Schlieffen Plan: New Sources on the History of German Military Planning

Gerhard P. Gross

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pp. 85-136

“There never was a Schlieffen Plan.”1 Several years ago this pointed thesis advanced by Terence Zuber caused a lively debate about operational and strategic planning in the Prussian Great General Staff (Grosser Generalstab) under the leadership of Field Marshal Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Colonel General Helmuth von Moltke the Younger.2 Zuber argued that the generally...

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“This Trench and Fortress Warfare Is Horrible!”: The Battles in Lorraine and the Vosges in the Summer of 1914

Dieter Storz

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pp. 137-188

In 1977 the major German television network ZDF broadcast a feature on the Battle of the Marne titled Generals. In the film, commentator Sebastian Haffner uses a large map to introduce the audience to the situation. With his hand pointing to Lorraine, he says: “We may forget about everything that happened here at the southern part of the western front. There was constant...

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The Military Planning of the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Army and the Schlieffen Plan

Günther Kronenbitter

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pp. 189-208

In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Habsburg monarchy, like the other Great Powers of continental Europe, underwent a process of systematization and perpetuation of the theoretical, administrative, and logistical preparations for war. As its primary institution for war planning, termed “specific war preparations” in experts’ jargon, Austria-Hungary too relied...

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French Plan XVII: The Interdependence between Foreign Policy and Military Planning during the Final Years before the Outbreak of the Great War

Stefan Schmidt

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pp. 209-246

Ever since the operational intentions of the European powers during the final run-up to 1914 became the subject of intensive scrutiny by historians, the Schlieffen Plan has been the focus of interest and criticism.1 This plan, developed by German chief of the General Staff Count Alfred von Schlieffen between the years 1892 and 1905, and despite all the subsequent modification...

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Russian Forces and the German Buildup at the Outbreak of World War I

Jan Kusber

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pp. 247-260

In a concise overview of World War I historiography, Gerhard Hirschfeld recently noted a turn toward a cultural historical interpretation of the war events between 1914 and 1918 and the intertwined military and civilian lives of the states and their peoples.1 One could justifiably say that the research on the war as war experience has become the focus of current scholarly...

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The Southern Envelopment: Switzerland’s Role in the Schlieffen and Moltke Plans

Hans Rudolf Fuhrer, Michael Olsansky

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pp. 261-292

“We have to admit that we owe our country’s preservation in the World War not only to divine providence, but more especially to the simple circumstance that both warring parties were in equal measure interested in preserving Switzerland’s neutrality.”1
These were the words of Theophil Sprecher von Bernegg, chief of the Swiss General Staff, in his famous speech to the Bern Officers’ Association in...

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The British Army, Its General Staff, and the Continental Commitment, 1904–1914

Hew Strachan

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pp. 293-318

After the First World War, Lord Haldane, anxious to refurbish his reputation as secretary of state for war between 1905 and 1912, published a self-justificatory memoir, Before the War (1920). His army reforms were, he claimed, an integrated whole, unified by a single strategic conception. That conception was “how to mobilize at a place of assembly to be opposite the Belgian...

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Belgium: Operational Plans and Tactics of a Neutral Country

Luc de Vos

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pp. 319-338

On 28 June 1914, six young men armed with pistols, hand grenades, and cyanide capsules were ready to attempt to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the nephew of and heir presumptive to Austria’s Emperor Franz Joseph. They wanted the assassination to take place in Sarajevo, the capital of the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina, claimed by Serbia. The assassins, all...

Appendix: Deployment Plans, 1893-1914

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pp. 339-526

Glossary of German Military Terms and Acronyms

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pp. 527-532

Contributors

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pp. 533-538

Index

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pp. 539-578

Map: Case Kuhl II: Operations Map Calais-Cologne

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Map: The 1914 Battles in Lorraine and in the Vosges Mountains

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Map: Case Freytag II: Overview Map of Europe

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Map: December 1905 Memorandum: Operational Overview Map

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Images

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