Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

I am fascinated by food. I am amazed by the political, social, and economic changes that attend agricultural revolutions. I have explored food as a weapon of political violence and war. I am interested in the history of foods from spices to coffee to sushi. I like to read about food, talk about food, prepare...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

I am deeply indebted to the Virginia Tech Department of Political Science, especially to Timothy W. Luke, Yannis Stivachtis, Ilja Luciak, Karen Hult, Craig Brians, and the other professors who guided me through ten years of education and professional development. There are no words sufficient...

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Introduction: A Twentieth-Century Problem

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pp. 1-14

This is a story about food safety regulation in the United States. It begins at the turn of the twentieth century, a time when the Progressive and Pure Food movements combined forces to pass and implement the country’s first food safety legislation: the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the 1906 Federal...

Part 1. The U.S. Food Safety Regulatory Regime

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1. Escape from the Jungle

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pp. 17-40

The U.S. food safety regulatory regime rests upon the statutory authority of two laws passed at the turn of the twentieth century: the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the 1906 Meat Inspection Act. Prior to 1906 there were no national food safety regulations in the United States. Instead there was...

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2. The Cranberry Crisis

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pp. 41-57

Advances in food science and technology that occurred during the twentieth century have made it possible for food systems to be organized, configured, and structured in ways that promote food safety. But if that is the case, why are there so many food safety crises in the United States? The answer is not...

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3. Science and Politics Collide

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pp. 58-76

The industrialized food system that emerged in the United States during the twentieth century produced vast quantities of inexpensive foods for a booming population of consumers. At the same time, inventions and innovations in food science and technology developed preservatives, flavors...

Part 2. Crises, Scandals, andFood Safety Regulation

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4. Models of Food Safety Regulation

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pp. 79-99

In his December 8, 2009, column for the Washington Post, Arthur Allen explored “the unusual suspects” responsible for outbreaks of foodborne illnesses in recent U.S. history: “Whatever our politics, we increasingly eat for a communal kitchen. . . . A steady roll call of food- borne illness outbreaks...

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5. Pandora’s Jack in the Box

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pp. 100-120

The USDA receives its food safety mandate from the 1906 Federal Meat Inspection Act, the 1967 Wholesome Meat Act (as amended), and the 1968 Wholesome Poultry Products Act (as amended). Unlike the FDA, the USDA’s statutory mandate includes accountability mechanisms that...

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6. From Spinach to GAPs

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pp. 121-140

Although the federal government didn’t become involved in food regulation until 1906, the United States has a long history of private, voluntary food standards coupled with third-party certification. Perhaps the oldest system is the one that governs kosher foods. In Jewish religious tradition...

Part 3. A New Regime for the Twenty-First Century

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7. The Peanut Butter Crisis

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pp. 143-161

In late 2008 a food safety crisis associated with peanuts catapulted food safety regulatory reform onto the national policy agenda. A product of corporate guile, deceit, and opportunism, this crisis necessitated the largest food recall in U.S. history. More important, it demonstrated the weaknesses...

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8. The Future of Food Safety

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pp. 162-186

For more than a hundred years efforts to transform the regulatory powers of the FDA and the USDA with regard to food safety failed. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses may have prompted consumers to define the public interest in terms of food safety, but the statutory authority of U.S. food safety...

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Epilogue: A Twenty-First-Century Mandate

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pp. 187-204

The 111th Congress concluded its business on January 4, 2011. To mark the occasion, President Obama signed into law H.R. 2751, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which amends the FD&CA with respect to food safety. This legislation represents the first transformative overhaul of the U.S. food...

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Appendix A: Recall List from 2008– 9 Peanut Outbreak

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pp. 205-222

This list includes all of the human and pet foods that were recalled in the United States from January 2009 to October 28, 2009, related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of America. This was the largest food safety recall in U.S. history. Because the contamination originated in...

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Appendix B: Food Safety Proposals before the 111th Congress

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pp. 223-232

The Food and Drug Administration Globalization Act of 2009 (H.R. 759) sought to amend the FD&CA to “set forth provisions governing food safety, including requirements for each food facility: (1) a hazard analysis of facilities that manufacture, process, pack, transport, or hold food for consumption..

Notes

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pp. 233-244

Bibliography

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pp. 245-256

Index

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pp. 257-267