Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-viii

Contents

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pp. ix-xii

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Foreword

Theodore Zev Weiss

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pp. xiii-xiv

...Foundation sponsors in partnership with major centers of higher learning. Our partner for Lessons and Legacies IX was Claremont McKenna College in Claremont, California. John Roth, Jonathan Petropoulos, and Lynn Rapaport...

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Introduction

Jonathan Petropoulos, Lynn Rapaport, and John K. Roth

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pp. xv-xxiv

... sponsored by the Holocaust Educational Foundation in Skokie, Illinois. The 2006 conference was the ninth in the series but the first to be held on the West Coast. Under the cosponsorship of the Claremont McKenna Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights...

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Prologue

Saul Friedländer

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pp. 3-16

...that had to give way to various shades of gray. Broszat’s barely hidden subtext, which emerged during our exchange of letters in 1988, contended that the Jewish survivors’ perception of this past, as well as that of their descendants, albeit “worthy of respect,”...

I. Memory

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Only in the Dark: Seeing Through the Gloom

John K. Roth

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pp. 19-29

...of testimony, which was translated, he said, “to keep the material as near to the text of the original narratives as the most elementary rules of grammar would permit.” Eight of these interviews were published...

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Suicides of German Jews During the Holocaust

Christian Goeschel

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pp. 30-46

...suicides of German Jews in Nazi Germany. In 1984, historians Konrad Kwiet and Helmut Eschwege argued that suicides of German Jews were not necessarily acts of resistance but nevertheless disturbed the bureaucratic...

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Deportation Transit and Captive Bodies: Rethinking Holocaust Witnessing

Simone Gigliotti

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pp. 47-62

...deportation as a model of Nazi bureaucratic efficiency at the high point of World War II. This high point was the commission of the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question,” the Nazi-coined euphemism for the mass...

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The Atomization of Auschwitz: Is History Really That Contingent?

Michael Allen

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pp. 63-82

...state established these camps shortly after the conquest of Poland, both to suppress the Polish population and to enforce the regime’s racial supremacy—including grand “Aryan”...

II. History

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Typology of Ghettos: Five Types of Ghettos Under German Administration

Martin Dean

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pp. 85-105

...a shtetl existed, he felt obliged to make up his own. This observation reflects my own experience in defining and describing the types of ghettos established for Jews by the Germans in Eastern Europe during...

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Defining the Ghettos: Jewish and German Perspectives in the Lublin District

David Silberklang

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pp. 106-123

...District. Klukowski recorded their intensive activity in his diary— laying and expanding roads, building bridges and airfields, and so on. Parallel to this, on January 28 he noted German preparations for “new...

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Jewish Ghettos in the Generalbezirk Kiew, 1941– 1943

Alexander V. Prusin

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pp. 124-138

...longevity of the ghettos in GBK depended on the will and whim of local German military and civil administration. In accordance with general Nazi guidelines, German offi cials in charge aimed at the total annihilation of Soviet Jews as the...

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Jewish Refugees from the Surrounding Communities in the Warsaw and Łódź Ghettos

Rachel Iskov

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pp. 139-151

...ghettos were unable to meet the needs of the new arrivals: the extra mouths to feed and bodies to shelter exacerbated the already devastating hunger and overcrowding that Jews suffered in both ghettos. The refugees found...

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Contesting and Compromising Ghettoization, Hungary 1944

Tim Cole

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pp. 152-166

...looked different in different places, as Browning’s study of the Łódź and Warsaw ghettos in 1940– 41 revealed. Looking through to the final year of the war, it is striking how ghettos in another country...

III. Responsibility

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Prince zu Waldeck und Pyrmont: A Career in the SS and Its Murderous Consequences

Jonathan Petropoulos

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pp. 169-184

...at times almost a nursing home for princes,’' there were organic ties between the nobility and Himmler’s elite—the consequences of which were sometimes murderous...

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When Perpetrators Compensate Victims: Karl Hettlage and the Politics of Indemnification in West Germany

Susanna Schrafstetter

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pp. 185-202

...division, where he facilitated the exploitation of slave labor. In 1959, he was appointed to the position of state secretary in the West German Ministry of Finance...

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The Vatican and the Nazi Movement, 1922–1939: New Sources and Unexpected Findings on the Vatican’s Response to Reichskristallnacht

Suzanne Brown- Fleming

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pp. 203-214

...diplomatic headquarters, associations, schools, priests and other religious, and laymen, and the Church’s responses to them; the evolution of the Holy See’s position with...

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Suspending Judgment for the Sake of Knowledge: Agamben’s Approach to Auschwitz

Lissa Skitolsky

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pp. 215-230

...by scholars when they explore the meaning of Nazism—first, that the Holocaust testifies to the loss of moral values that we must reaffirm to prevent the recurrence of genocidal intent, especially through our moral judgment...

IV. Post-Holocaust Issues

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Did Poles Oppose or Collaborate with the Nazis? Problems with Narrating the Holocaust in Poland

Michael Meng

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pp. 233-250

...Although the Polish president requested that this part of the law be taken out before he signed it, this attempt to restrict discussion about the past is striking in its audacity and breadth. The clause included the term “crimes...

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Just Like the Jews: Contending Victimization in the Former Yugoslavia

Paul B. Miller

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pp. 251-268

...exclude the evil deeds of the Communist regimes, then the cold- blooded murder of some seven to eight thousand Bosnian Muslim males following the fall of Srebrenica to the Bosnian Serb army in summer 1995 surely...

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Equivocal Talismans: The UN Genocide Convention and the Responsibility to Protect

Jerry Fowler

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pp. 269-288

...represented a small step toward protecting civilians from mass violence: by criminalizing the actions of government offi cials under certain circumstances, it made explicit for the first time an internationally recognized limit on the treatment that governments could mete out to their own citizens. At...

V. Epilogue: Compiled and introduced by John K. Roth

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Ethics During and After the Holocaust

John K. Roth

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pp. 291-293

...fact could reveal reticence, a thoughtful caution about speaking too quickly and confidently about “moral lessons” that the Holocaust supposedly teaches. Or it might mean that the Holocaust did so much damage that there...

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Encountering Ethical Dilemmas in Writing the History of the Holocaust

Christopher R. Browning

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pp. 294-299

...you use gas?” Ho Chi Minh replies, “Because water is cheaper.” Thus, unlike many other historical events, the fundamental immorality of the Holocaust is not seriously in question, even in radically diff erent political cultures...

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Ethics and Corporate History in Nazi Germany

Peter Hayes

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pp. 300-303

...them. Such behavior generally brings psychic comfort and sometimes personal advancement as well. By the latter term, I am pointing toward several elements of German life in the 1930s and 1940s that were somewhat...

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Taking Jean Améry’s “Grudge” Seriously

Claudia Koonz

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pp. 304-310

...Commentaries on the first and second German editions as well as on translations into English, French, and Hebrew have returned again and again to many of the painful questions that...

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Torture and the Ethical Implications of the Holocaust

Rebecca Wittmann

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pp. 311-315

...ideologues who dreamed up the “Final Solution,” able to conquer territory and eradicate the territory’s Jewish population; to the guards at concentration camps, driven by antisemitism, opportunism, fear of the front, or careerism; to...

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Two Ethical Issues

Berel Lang

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pp. 316-320

...discussion of the Holocaust can be understood on the model of a straight historical line. The Holocaust, even while it was occurring, led to the conceptualization (and term) of...

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Postscript

John K. Roth

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pp. 321-324

...his readers inside a ghetto, a deportation cattle car, or a death camp. Instead, as the story’s title suggests, one is led to consider the Holocaust as an absence, an unredeemed...

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

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pp. 325-328

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Notes on Contributors

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pp. 329-332

...is the senior program offi cer in the University Programs Division of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s Center for Advanced...