Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Foreword

Theodore Zev Weiss

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pp. xi-xii

...of higher learning. These conferences have become a tradition. The two Northwestern University conferences of 1990 and 1992 were followed by others at Dartmouth College in 1994 and Notre Dame University in 1996. We are...

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Introduction

Ronald Smelser

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pp. xiii-xxiv

...conference focused on the theme of “Law, Evidence, and Context” and represented an attempt to wrestle with the complex and often contradictory question of the Holocaust and justice. Is justice possible for such a horrendous crime...

I. Context

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Utopia and Violence: Visions of Perfection and Practices of Purification

Omer Bartov

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pp. 5-30

...But this quest for perfection has often been accompanied by an urge to unmake the present and erase the heritage of the past. Hence the path to utopia is strewn with shattered edifices and mounds of corpses. Because by definition...

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Ideology and Extermination: The Immediate Origins of the Final Solution

Saul Friedländer

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pp. 31-48

...the last powerful blow that will shatter this enemy before the onset of the winter,” Hitler made quite clear what was the true identity of the “horrendous, beast-like” enemy that had been about to “annihilate not only Germany, but...

II. Perpetrators

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Who Killed the Jews? Reflections on a Riddle

Alvin Rosenfeld

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pp. 51-61

...memory for those who committed them. The problem, as we shall see, has less to do with the facts as with the complex and sometimes contradictory manner of their presentation. It also has to do with what the minds...

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Officials of the Reich Central Office for Security

Peter Black

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pp. 62-87

...crime has evolved far beyond the early emphasis on the “Gestapo” as part of a larger SS “state within a state.”1 We now understand the essential role played by regional SS and police leaders and by the officials of other key SS main offices...

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The Administrators in the Concentration Camps

Henry Friedlander

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pp. 88-99

...terror and genocide in the killing centers and killing fields. We know they were selected almost at random and were not always members of the SS and sometimes not even of the Nazi Party. Although ideology undoubtedly...

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Technocrats of Extermination: Engineers, Modern Bureaucracy, and Complicity

Michael Allen

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pp. 100-122

...to warn HUTA: “This firm was completely destroyed by enemy bombing at the end of July, 1943 but has now once again reached full production capacity through emergency measures. It is therefore a duty that goes without...

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How Amorality Became Normality: The Wehrmacht and the Holocaust

Hannes Heer

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pp. 123-139

...column” of the Nazi system, forming it into a compliant tool of its extermination policy. Taking a view from the bottom end, based on three divisions stationed...

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The Degussa AG and the Holocaust

Peter Hayes

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pp. 140-177

...trust-busting efforts and overlooking the ways in which it had capitalized on Nazi economics and, in particular, the persecution of the Jews. Specifically, during...

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The Case against Switzerland

Sybil Milton

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pp. 178-191

...had been clear since April 7, 1945, when U.S. Army officers entered the Kaiseroda salt mines near Merkers, discovering bags of gold and silver bars and coins as...

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Questioning the Perpetrators

Gitta Sereny

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pp. 192-212

...really journalism. What it requires first of all, is the acquisition of knowledge: it is entirely irresponsible to touch, even marginally, upon this kind of historical, or social, journalism without a background of real knowledge in history, law, and psychology. That, of course, you can gain by education...

III. The Courts

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History and the Holocaust in the Courtroom

Michael R. Marrus

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pp. 215-239

...material submitted in evidence, and pretrial interrogations have all been useful for historians of the Holocaust, including myself. But it seems to me that people have often expected trials to contribute more than source material...

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The Trials of Holocaust Perpetrators in France

Robert O. Paxton

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pp. 240-244

...collaborators as soon as the soil of France was liberated. This decision was intended not only in order to do justice but also to head off vigilantism. Even so, about 9,000 people were killed in direct settlement of scores, with little or no trial...

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Inside the “Aussenlager”: Interpreting Survivors’ Testimony of Jewish Slave Labor in German Industry

Therkel Straede

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pp. 245-254

...long, wide, low-ceilinged basement room. Electric bulbs lit the room, which had only one daylight window. The room was bright, because cream-colored tiles covered the walls and lightgray cement the floor. The...

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Interpreting Female Perpetrators: Ravensbrück Guards in the Courts of East Germany, 1946–1955

Insa Eschebach

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pp. 255-267

...The problem is that these files reveal comparatively little about the camp itself, and even the profiles of the perpetrators seem strangely stereotyped. This is mainly due to the high degree of political determination of East German trials, particularly during...

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The Holocaust’s Soviet Legacies in Latvia

Andrew Ezergailis

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pp. 268-276

...concentration and death camps, and Raul Hilberg’s collection of documents, were absent in the Soviet Union. In a true sense, the Holocaust experience within the Soviet realm was different—in the Western sense almost nonexistent. On the...

IV. Memory and Historical Perspective

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Representing the Holocaust in the General Histories of World War II

Donald Schilling

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pp. 279-294

...the authors aimed to help readers “understand what actually happened, when and where and how, in the greatest war in history, and to see it all in better perspective”...

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Jews and Non-Jews in France during World War II: A Daily Life Perspective

Renée Poznanski

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pp. 295-312

...conclusions. Some depict the French as anti- Semites, receptive to the dominant ideology, accomplices in the application of the various measures of exclusion and dispossession. Later, they were at best indifferent, at worst content...

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The Future of the Jews after Hitler

David Bankier

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pp. 313-330

...literature indicates that the persecution of Jews was viewed as just another event in the extensive catalog of Nazi crimes. Only with the proliferation of news on Nazi extermination policy from late 1942 and with the mounting...

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Terezín and the Memory of the Holocaust in Czechoslovakia since 1945

Vojtech Blodig

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pp. 331-340

...fate of those who passed through it during the Nazi occupation. This memorial, later renamed the Terezín Memorial, was the only institution of this kind in the Czech lands. It was established on the site where the largest Nazi...

V. The Second Generation

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Second-Generation Jewish Identity and “Working Through” the Shoah: Helen Epstein’s Journey from Children of the Holocaust to Where She Came From

Alan Berger

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pp. 343-358

...The question is: How does one live with this metaphysical stain? For survivors, the Shoah, as Elie Wiesel notes, continued after the war. Memory, unbidden and irrepressible, assumed a life of its own. For offspring of...

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The Second Generation and the Problematics of Tikkun: A Reading of Alan Berger’s Children of Job

Rachel Feldhay Brenner

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pp. 359-369

...representation as encountered by the first-generation Holocaust writers. Although the injunction to consign the memory to silence has not been heeded even by those who proclaimed it, the literature of the Holocaust by...

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Filming the Generations: Holocaust Survivors and Their Children

Sara R. Horowitz

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pp. 370-380

...on an individual’s experiences, the films take pains to present “objective history” alongside the survivor’s recollections. These films present the Holocaust in historical perspective, as an event of great magnitude...

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False Papers: The Tension between Testimony and Story in a Holocaust Memoir

Robert Melson

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pp. 381-396

...Catholic family until the end of the war. Most other Jews were less lucky. My grandfather, my father’s father, committed suicide before his arrest by the Gestapo. My other grandparents, my mother’s parents, were first interned...

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Notes on Contributors

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pp. 397-400

...a professor of Holocaust studies at the Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the head of the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem. He is the author and editor of books and essays...