Front cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. 5-9

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Introduction

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pp. 10-13

The international fortunes of Gramsci's work have fluctuated with the changes of fashion on the intellectual left. Thus in the 1960s the vogue for Althusser in Latin America largely blocked the way for Gramsci, although in France itself Althusser's prominence also gave publicity to the then barely known Italian, whom he both praised and criticised. ...

Note on the Text

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pp. 14-16

Chronological Outline

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pp. 17-26

Part I. Writings 1916-1926

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pp. 27-28

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Chapter I. Socialism and Marxism 1917-1918

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pp. 29-52

When Gramsci joined the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) in 1913 it was divided , like other European social-democratic parties, into a 'reformist' right and a 'revolutionary' left. The reformists envisaged a 'legal' transition to socialism through parliamentary majorities and reforms, trade union gains, extension of the co-operative movement and occupancy of the local slate. ...

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Chapter II. Working-Class Education and Culture

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pp. 53-75

Questions of education and culture were always of central importance to Gramsci. His early educational thinking revolves around the problem of how working-class people can become intellectually autonomous. If this can be achieved they can lead their own movement without having to delegate decision-making to 'career intellectuals'. ...

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Chapter III. Factory Councils and Socialist Democracy

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pp. 76-109

In 1919 the situation in Italy was characterized by acute labour conflicts and a weak state. Both the industrial bourgeoisie and the labour movement had emerged strengthened after the war. Strike activity reached unprecedented levels and took on an increasingly political character. The model of Soviet Russia was powerful. In 1919 came the conquest of an eight-hour day and a national minimum wage. ...

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Chapter IV. Communism 1919-24

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pp. 110-134

In January 1921 the Communist Party of Italy (PCdl) was formed out of a split at the Seventeenth PSI Congress in Livorno, the culmination of two years of acute inner-party conflict. It was an amalgamation of three main currents: a group of left maximalists and two communist fractions, one grouped around Amadeo Bordiga's Naples periodical Il Soviet. ...

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Chapter V. Fascist Reaction and Communist Strategy 1924-1926

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pp. 135-186

These writings date from the period of Gramsci's leadership of the PCdI (August 1924 to November 1926) and deal principally with three subjects: Fascism, developments in the Soviet Union and prospects for revolution in Italy. ...

Part II. Prison Writings 1929-1935

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pp. 187-188

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Chapter VI. Hegemony, Relations of Force, Historical Bloc

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pp. 189-221

The reality in which Gramsci found himself after 1926 was one in which socialist revolutions had either been defeated or had failed to take place in the West, where capitalism had managed to survive the post-war economic crisis and stabilize itself, where parliamentary regimes had stood firm or had been replaced with authoritarian ones. ...

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Chapter VII. The Art and Science of Politics

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pp. 222-245

These notes on the state and civil society and on the political party can be thought of as continuous with those in the preceding section. Gramsci's critique there of economism at the theoretical level is complemented by his critique here of its practical consequences. Rosa Luxemburg's conception of the mass strike and Trotsky's theory of the permanent revolution are, for Gramsci, forms of economistic political thinking. ...

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Chapter VIII. Passive Revolution, Caesarism, Fascism

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pp. 246-274

This section contains some of Gramsci's most important notes on bourgeois hegemony from the French Revolution to Fascism. They constitute an essential historical complement to his reflections on the contemporary situation. Gramsci viewed the French Revolution, through the lenses of Marx, Lenin and the historian Albert Mathiez, as an abrupt displacement of aristocratic rule ...

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Chapter IX. Americanism and Fordism

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pp. 275-299

The notes on 'Americanism and Fordism' deal with new forms of interpenetration in the 1920s and 30s between the economy and the political and cultural spheres. Gramsci treats the sphere of production not as a mechanically determining economic 'base' but as part of a complex 'historical bloc', ...

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Chapter X. Intellectuals and Education

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pp. 300-322

'I greatly extend the notion of intellectuals', Gramsci wrote to his sister-in-law Tatiana Schucht in 1931, 'and I do not restrict myself to the current notion which refers to great intellectuals' (Lettere dal carcere, ed. S. Caprioglio and E. Fubini. Turin 1965, p. 481). As he redefines the word it comes to designate anyone whose function in society is primarily that of organizing, administering, directing, educating or leading others. ...

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Chapter XI. Philosophy, Common Sense, Language and FoIklore:

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pp. 323-362

The problem which preoccupies Gramsci in the notes in this section is that of how to overcome the separation between Marxism as a philosophy (the 'philosophy of praxis') and people's actual consciousness. His approach to this problem is, in a double movement, firstly to break down the notion of philosophy, and consequently of Marxism, ...

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Chapter XII. Popular Culture

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pp. 363-378

Gramsci's interest in popular culture was bound up with his conception of revolutionary change as a process in which popular mentalities and behaviour are transformed (see Section Xl). In Italy, there had been historically – with the partial exception of opera – no 'national-popular' culture, that is to say no form of culture in which there was an organic relationship between Italian intellectuals and the broad national masses. ...

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Chapter XIII. Journalism

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pp. 379-390

The notes on journalism included here are mainly of a prescriptive and 'ideal' kind. They deal, that is, with the kind of press Gramsci would like to see the Communist Party organize if it were not prevented from doing so by the conditions of Fascist repression and censorship at the time he was writing. ...

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Chapter XIV. Art and the Struggle for a New Civilization

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pp. 391-402

The discussions of culture and literature in the prison notebooks (1929-35) coincide in time with the great debates on the European left over realism and modernism, proletarian literature, popular frontism and socialist realism. At first sight they appear tangential to those debates, but on closer inspection they overlap with several of their key themes ...

Notes

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pp. 403-419

Glossary of Key Terms

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pp. 420-431

Further Reading

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pp. 432-435

Name Index

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pp. 436-439

Subject Index

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pp. 440-448