Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. iii-v

contents

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p. vii

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Baseball on a Shoestring

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pp. 1-15

The five-game series between the Baltimore Elite (pronounced e-e-e-light) Giants and the Washington-Homestead Grays to determine the Negro National League championship for 1948 was one of the strangest series of games in all of professional baseball. At the end of the....

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CHAPTER 1

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pp. 16-42

Newspapers often referred to Smiling Tom Wilson’s squad as “the well-traveled Elite Giants.” They played their first game in 1921 in Nashville, Tennessee, and joined the Negro National League in 1929. The Great Depression....

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2. Pennants and Jumpers

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pp. 43-68

Resolved to improve on the results of their maiden season in Baltimore, the Elites opened spring training on April 2, 1939, once again in Nashville. Tom Wilson appointed Felton Snow to manage the team...

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3.War on the Home Front

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pp. 69-94

World War II had engulfed the European and Pacific theaters as the 1942 season opened. Major League Baseball commissioner Kenesaw “Mountain” Landis, in a letter to President Roosevelt, questioned...

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4. Bending the Color Bar

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pp. 95-133

By 1946 Negro leaguers were returning from the war to full-time baseball. The returnees included Elites and ex- Elites—Sammy T. Hughes, Joe Black, Bill Burns, Bill Harvey, Johnny Washington, and Frazier Robinson....

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Integration, Disintegration

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pp. 134-144

The American League St. Louis Browns came to town in April of 1954 and took the name Baltimore Orioles, which the International League Orioles no longer needed, because they moved to Richmond, Virginia. In February...

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acknowledgments

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pp. 145-148

Now that I am retired, in the sense that I voluntarily left the world of employment after a forty-year career in human resource development, I can pursue my hobby of writing baseball history on a full-time basis. The more I write, the more I meet people who...

appendix a. a brief history of black baseball in baltimore before the elite giants

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pp. 149-151

appendix b. baltimore elite giants baseball club operating statement, 1947

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p. 152

appendix c. baltimore elite giants standings, 1938–1951

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pp. 153-156

notes

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pp. 157-182

suggested reading

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pp. 183-184

index

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pp. 185-192