Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword

Marcos Cueto

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pp. vii-x

This book testifies to the progress of critical investigations on how science and technology have been constructed, designed, imagined, and practiced in Latin America. This collection is truly outstanding, not only because the contributors take into consideration the philosophical, historical, sociological, anthropological, and political...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

The idea for this book grew out of a meeting sponsored by the Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) that took place in June 2011 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The meeting brought together representatives from 4S and the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (ESOCITE). It also commenced planning...

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1. Introduction. Beyond Imported Magic

Eden Medina, Ivan da Costa Marques, and Christina Holmes

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pp. 1-24

The essays in this collection employ critical frameworks from science and technology studies (STS) to formulate new ideas and knowledge about how Latin American peoples, countries, cultures, and environments create, adapt, and use science and technology. Two key themes run through the volume. First, its essays go beyond viewing science...

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Part I. Latin American Perspectives on Science, Technology, and Society

of its history, Maguinhos was involved in efforts to build the Brazilian nation and...

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2. Who Invented Brazil?

Henrique Cukierman

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pp. 27-46

The Manguinhos Institute, popularly known as Manguinhos, was founded in 1900 in Rio de Janeiro and continues to be a leading Brazilian institution for research, teaching, and the production of medicine in the public health area. During the first years of its history, Maguinhos was involved in efforts to build the Brazilian nation and...

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3. Innovation and Inclusive Development in the South: A Critical Perspective

Mariano Fressoli, Rafael Dias, and Hernán Thomas

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pp. 47-66

As Medina, Marques, and Holmes argue in the introduction to this book, science and technology studies (STS) scholars in Latin America have a strong tradition of critiquing foreign science and technology (S & T) models of development and their unidirectional model of technology transfer. One of the most salient issues in this trend has been a...

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4. Working with Care: Narratives of Invisible Women Scientists Practicing Forensic Genetics in Colombia

Tania Pérez-Bustos, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, and Adriana Díaz del Castillo H.

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pp. 67-84

In this paper we focus on the case of women geneticists working in the field of forensic genetics in Colombia.1 These scientists, who contribute to the identification of victims of the armed conflict in the country and in civil or criminal cases, as well as in the adjudication of paternity, are usually trained as microbiologists or bacteriologists...

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5. Ontological Politics and Latin American Local Knowledges

Ivan da Costa Marques

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pp. 85-110

Ontological politics! So what? What are the implications of ontological politics for issues involving distributions of privileges and disadvantages in engagements with the world? What does it mean to have an ontological political perspective, and what is gained with it? How does one come to recognize ontological political options after...

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6. Technology in an Expanded Field: A Review of History of Technology Scholarship on Latin America in Selected English-Language Journals

Michael Lemon and Eden Medina

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pp. 111-136

In One Hundred Years of Solitude, Gabriel García Márquez uses technology to tell the history of a fictional Latin American town named Macondo.1 The novel begins with gypsies bringing “ great inventions ” such as ice, magnets, a telescope, and false teeth to the tiny town. Technological innovations connect the isolated town and the outside...

Part II. Local and Global Networks of Innovation

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7. South Atlantic Crossings: Fingerprints, Science, and the State in Turn-of-the-Twentieth-Century Argentina

Julia Rodriguez

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pp. 139-158

In the course of one of the most infamous murder cases in late nineteenth-century Argentina, prosecutors obtained in 1892 the world ’ s first criminal conviction based on fingerprint evidence. Immersed in the ghoulish facts of the case, in which two small children were stabbed to death in their beds, the coastal villagers of Necochea...

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8. Tropical Assemblage: The Soviet Large Panel in Cuba

Hugo Palmarola and Pedro Ignacio Alonso

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pp. 159-180

This chapter examines the construction and history of one of the largest social housing projects in Latin America, which began in 1963 with the arrival of a Soviet-financed factory in Santiago de Cuba to produce large concrete panels. The introduction of the Soviet large-panel factory was important to the Cuban Revolution, as it demonstrated...

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9. Balancing Design: OLPC Engineers and ICT Translations at the Periphery

Anita Say Chan

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pp. 181-206

A visit to the Peruvian Ministry of Education’ s website for its national One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative makes plain, for even a first-time visitor, the transformational promise of technological innovation.1 After entering the site via a page that features a single profile of a young student with her gaze fixed into the screen of

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10. Translating Magic: The Charisma of One Laptop per Child’s XO Laptop in Paraguay

Morgan G. Ames

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pp. 207-224

In April 2008 liberal candidate Fernando Lugo won the Paraguayan presidency with 41 percent of the vote. It was the first time Paraguay’ s conservative Colorado party had relinquished power in sixty-one years and one of the few peaceful transfers of power between parties in the country’ s nearly two-hundred-year history (Nickson...

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11. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: How an Emerging Area on the Scientific Agenda of the Core Countries Has Been Adopted and Transformed in Latin America

Noela Invernizzi, Matthieu Hubert, and Dominique Vinck

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pp. 225-244

One of the main problems facing STS studies in Latin America regards the relevance of public policies in social, cultural, and economic contexts that are considered “peripheral.” A particular feature that we analyze in this chapter is the way in which emerging thematic priorities and science policy models circulate among central and...

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12. Latin America as Laboratory: The Camera and the Yale Peruvian Expeditions

Amy Cox Hall

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pp. 245-264

Through our lens today we view Hiram Bingham ’ s Yale Peruvian Expeditions (1911, 1912, 1914 – 1915) to Machu Picchu as tarnished by industry and ego, couched in imperial narratives of progress and development, and perpetuating a racialized understanding of Peru as burdened by its indigenous population. Moreover, recent publications...

Part III. Science, Technology, and Latin American Politics

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13. Bottling Atomic Energy: Technology, Politics, and the State in Peronist Argentina

Jonathan Hagood

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pp. 267-286

On March 24, 1951, Argentine president Juan Perón invited members of the nation’s press to the Casa Rosada, the presidential palace, to announce the success of Proyecto Huemul, Argentina’s atomic fusion research program. With émigré German scientist and project leader Ronald Richter at his side, the president began...

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14. Peaceful Atoms in Mexico

Gisela Mateos and Edna Suá ez-Díaz

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pp. 287-304

This chapter provides an interconnected history of the promotion and peaceful uses of atomic energy in Mexico during the first decades of the cold war. This was a rich period in the development of Mexican science and its institutions, which exhibited both a strong nationalistic sentiment and an intensified international character. In...

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15. Neoliberalism as Political Technology: Expertise, Energy, and Democracy in Chile

Manuel Tironi and Javiera Barandiarán

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pp. 305-330

Neoliberalism has had a profound impact on contemporary Chile. Neoliberal policies redefined sectors and institutions in industry (Ffrench-Davis 1980), labor (Foxley 1983), health (Ossandón 2009), the city (Portes and Roberts 2005 ; Sabatini 2000), and the environment (Liverman and Vilas 2006), from the 1970s through today. Many say...

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16. Creole Interferences: A Conflict over Biodiversity and Ownership in the South of Brazil

Ana Delgado and Israel Rodríguez-Giralt

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pp. 331-348

In Latin American history, the term creole (crioulo in Portuguese, criollo in Spanish) stands for “person native to a locality” and has been used to designate the descendants of those who emigrated from Europe.1 It refers to those who were born here. Thus, creole evokes colonial stories of displacement, delocalizations, and relocalizations...

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17. The Juridical Hospital: Patient-Citizen-Consumers Claiming the Right to Health in Brazilian Courts

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pp. 349-372

A retired bus driver, Edgar Lemos lives in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of Porto Alegre, the capital of the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Dealing with significant motor difficulties, Edgar had to wait for more than a year for a specialized neurological appointment at a nearby public hospital. He was finally diagnosed with...

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Contributors

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pp. 373-378

Pedro Ignacio Alonso is an architect, holds a MSc in architecture from the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (2000), and completed his PhD at the Architectural Association in London (2008). Together with Hugo Palmarola, he curated the Chile Pavilion at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition (Biennale di Venezia, 2014)...

Index

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pp. 379-396