Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Foreword

Theodore Zev Weiss

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pp. xi-xii

This is the eleventh volume of a series of scholarly papers to be published as an outgrowth of Lessons and Legacies Conferences that the Holocaust Educational Foundation in partnership with major centers of higher learning has sponsored for more than three decades. I would like to begin by thanking all the professors, universities, and...

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Introduction

Hilary Earl, Karl A. Schleunes

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pp. xiii-2

The context in which we study the Holocaust is continually changing. In 2009, Donald Bloxham published the provocatively titled The Final Solution: A Genocide. The rationale for the use of an indefinite article in the title, he explains, was “not to diminish the magnitude of the Holocaust but to encourage the reader to think of it as a...

I. The Place of the Holocaust in a Changing World

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Genocide and the Holocaust: Arguments over History and Politics

Omer Bartov

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pp. 5-28

Does the Holocaust constitute an obstacle to the study of genocide? On the face of it, most laypersons, and not a few historians, would find this to be an absurd statement. After all, the Holocaust was a major genocide in the heart of Europe in the middle of the twentieth century; one consequence of its shattering effect was the United...

II. Sexual Violence

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The Historicity of Denial: Sexual Violence against Jewish Women during the War of Annihilation, 1941–1945

Regina Mühlhäuser

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pp. 31-58

Erich von Manstein, born 1887, was one of the most prominent commanders of Germany’s armed forces, the Wehrmacht, during World War II. On August 10, 1946, he testified as a witness for the defense at the Nuremberg Trials. When questioned about the effectiveness of the chain of command and the military laws during the...

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“Her flesh is branded: ‘For Officers Only’”: Imagining and Imagined Sexual Violence against Jewish Women during the Holocaust

Pascale Bos

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pp. 59-85

Sexual violence during wartime is pervasive. Yet it has been only during the last two decades, in the wake of the wars in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in which mass rape and other forms of sexual violence played a central role, that scholars have begun to take a closer look at such crimes in relationship to World War II and the...

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Pipels: Situational Homosexual Slavery of Young Adolescent Boys in Nazi Concentration Camps

Robert Sommer

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pp. 86-104

The German political prisoner Harry Naujoks, who survived the concentration camps1 Sachsenhausen and Flossenbürg, remembered in his autobiography the pipels of Flossenbürg:

It was bon ton in the camp to have a toy boy—or as these boys were called—“Ponimai-men.” Almost every block chief, almost every...

III. Contentious Memories—and Representation

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Problems of Representation: Simon Srebnik and the Strategies of Reenactment in Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah

Toni-Lynn Frederick

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pp. 107-120

Even if Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah were not nine and a half hours long, did not take eleven years to make, and was not culled from over 350 hours of 16mm film footage, it would remain an extraordinary motion picture. As a Holocaust documentary it is especially remarkable: it has no voice-over, there is no nondiegetic music, and, apart...

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The Canadian Army Newsreels as a Representation of the Holocaust

Rebecca Margolis

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pp. 121-143

The Canadian War Museum’s exhibit on the Second World War features a panel that shows images of the liberated Belsen concentration camp alongside the following phrase from a soldier’s diary, “This is why we fought World War II.”1 It is a single panel among dozens that together offer a narrative of Canadian military involvement that...

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“The Many Faces of Memories”: How Do Jews and the Holocaust Matter in Postcommunist Poland?

Joanna Beata Michlic

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pp. 144-179

This chapter considers the representations of Jews and the Holocaust in postcommunist Poland from 2002—the year when the public debate about the Jedwabne massacre of July 10, 1941, culminated in the publication of the forensic report of the Institute of National Memory—until 2011. The debate about Jedwabne was the...

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“Armenian Atrocities”: German Jews and Their Knowledge of the Genocide during the Third Reich

Wolf Gruner

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pp. 180-208

The February 2006 issue of Time magazine Europe contained a DVD with a documentary on the “Genocide of the Armenian People” displaying the following text: “‘Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?’1 Adolf Hitler posed this same rhetorical question on August 22, 1939, before embarking on his campaign to exterminate...

IV. Racism, Religion, Law

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German Jews: The Temptation of Racism

Shulamit Volkov

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pp. 211-228

By the late nineteenth century, the term “race” (and its multiple derivatives) was ubiquitous in Germany, a recurrent element of both the intellectual and the popular discourse of the day.1 Its origins are many, stretching back at least to the early modern period and buttressed by eighteenth-century fascination with physiognomy, the...

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The Bitter Legacy and Unlearned Lesson of Adolf Schlatter

James E. McNutt

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pp. 229-249

In late 1937, Adolf Schlatter, emeritus professor of theology at Tübingen, published what would be his final major work, Do We Know Jesus? Concerned about confessional and political confusion within German Protestantism under the Third Reich, he believed Christians could find guidance in reflecting on the ministry and teachings...

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What Was “Jewish” about the “Jewish Influence” on German Law as Portrayed by Nazi Legal Theorists?

Robert D. Rachlin

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pp. 250-262

The Nazi project to “de-judaize” Germany included not only the physical elimination of the Jews—by marginalization, delegitimation, deportation, and extermination—but also the “cleansing” of German economic, cultural, and institutional life of what was seen as Jewish influence. This chapter concentrates on the second prong of the...

V. Geography

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Rethinking Segregation in the Ghetto: Invisible Walls and Social Networks in the Dispersed Ghetto in Budapest, 1944

Tim Cole, Alberto Giordano

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pp. 265-291

Ghettoization during the Holocaust is generally imagined as a simultaneous process of both concentration and segregation. Jews were placed in increasingly physically concentrated living quarters and were separated from the non-Jewish population through the creation of closed and guarded boundaries.1 However, while concentration appears...

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Walking in the Footsteps of the Vanished: Using Physical Landscapes to Understand Wehrmacht Participation in Einsatzgruppen Killings in Belarus

Waitman Wade Beorn

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pp. 292-306

On an overcast Thursday afternoon in September 1941, the Jews of Krupki in central Belarus wound their way out of town, across the highway. One of the German soldiers driving them to their deaths was twenty-year-old Private Walter Kartelmeier. He noticed a small child whose pants had fallen down around his ankles. Though his mother...

VI. Responses

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“Der Dank des Vaterlandes”: Memories and Chronicles of German Jewry in the 1930s

Mark Roseman

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pp. 309-322

This chapter discusses recent experiences working with Jürgen Matthäus on the first volume of the Jewish Responses to Persecution series, which explored organized and individual Jewish responses to Nazi rule 1933–38.1 The underlying principles of the Responses to Persecution series, which combines documents with an explanatory...

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Karl Barth, Elisabeth Schmitz, and Her Denkschrift against the Persecution of Jews

Manfred Gailus

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pp. 323-334

In April 1933, the theologian Karl Barth received a letter from a woman in Berlin. The letter began:

Please excuse me, that I dare write to you as a completely unknown person. However, the deep distress of our times compels me to do so. Among my closest friends I witness the serious consequences...

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Mixed and Confused—Egyptian Initial Responses to the Holocaust

Esther Webman

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pp. 335-354

The Holocaust became a matter of concern to Egyptian leaders and occupied a significant place in the country’s public agenda even before the end of World War II. The Zionist calls during the war to abolish the restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine imposed by the 1939 British White Paper, the emerging problem of Jewish survivors...

VII. New Directions

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Holocaust History: An Agenda for Renewal

Timothy Snyder

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pp. 357-368

A little more than twenty years ago, three important changes emerged in the practice of the history of the Holocaust. The first was the beginning of serious public contestation. The Historikerstreit of the late 1980s was the first major debate about the Holocaust among historians. Although its concerns today might seem outdated, German...

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Notes on Contributors

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pp. 369-372

Omer Bartov is the John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History at Brown University. He has published six monographs, the most recent of which is Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-Day Ukraine. He is currently completing a large study titled The Voice of Your Brother’s Blood: Buczacz, Biography of a...