Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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p. v

The Contributors

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p. vii

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Preface

Stephen Van Evera

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pp. ix-xxi

On March 23, 1983 President Ronald Reagan announced in a nationally televised speech that his administration would seek to develop a defense against ballistic missiles. "What if free people could live secure in the knowledge that their security did not rest upon the threat of instant U.S. retaliation...

The Star Wars Controversy: Contending Points of View

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The SDI in U.S. Nuclear Strategy: Senate Testimony

Fred S. Hoffman

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pp. 3-14

AS we approach the second anniversary of President Reagan's speech announcing the SDI, it is useful to review the development of the issue. Critics and supporters alike now recognize that the central question concerns the kind of R&D program we should be conducting. Virtually no one on either...

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Rhetoric and Realities in the Star Wars Debate

James R. Schlesmer

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pp. 15-24

During the mid-1960s when I was at Rand, the initial deployment of the Soviet ABM system caused a good deal of concern. The perplexing question of how to assure penetration of that system was argued and re-argued. The final judgment—the canonical solution of Secretary McNamara—was that the United States...

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Why Even Good Defenses May Be Bad

Charles L. Glaser

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pp. 25-56

Once again, the United States is in the midst of a debate over whether to deploy defenses designed to protect U.S. cities and population from Soviet missile attack. This debate is, most immediately, the result of President Reagan's "star wars" speech, in which he asked the rhetorical question:...

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Preserving the ABM Treaty

Sidney D. Drellr Philip J. Farley, David Holloway

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pp. 57-97

In his speech on March 23, 1983, President Reagan offered a vision of escape from grim reliance on the threat of retaliation to deter aggression and prevent nuclear war: "What if free people could live secure in the knowledge that their security did not rest upon the threat of instant U.S. retaliation to deter...

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Do We Want the Missile Defenses We Can Build?

Charles L. Glaser

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pp. 98-130

On March 23, 1983, President Reagan delivered his famous "Star Wars" speech in which he called for development of defenses capable of making nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete."1 The President's speech raised the hope that U.S. cities could be made invulnerable, a task requiring near-perfect...

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Ballistic Missile Defense and the Atlantic Alliance

David S. Yost

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pp. 131-162

The Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision...

Principal Official Documents of the Star Wars Controversy

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pp. 163-169

Contents

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p. 171

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1. Introduction

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pp. 173-176

This Background Paper describes and assesses current concepts for directed-energy ballistic missile defense in space. Its purpose is to provide Members of Congress, their staffs, and the public with a readable introduction to the socalled "Star Wars" technologies that some...

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2. Booster Characteristics

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pp. 177-184

Intercept of ICBMs in their boost phase offers advantages and disadvantages relative to intercept of reentry vehicles (RVs) later in the trajectory. The boosters are fewer and generally more easily disrupted or destroyed than the...

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3. Directed Energy Weapon Concepts for Boost Phrase Intercept

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pp. 185-208

This section describes the entire set of "beam weapons" being considered in the United States today for boost-phase ICBM intercept. Though these weapons receive the most attention, the "kill mechanism" that destroys the...

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4. Other Essential Elements of a Boost-Phase Intercept System

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pp. 209-214

The previous section treated only the defensive weapon itself, the so-called "kill mechanism." But if beam weapons ever evolve to the point where deployment is a serious possibility, other elements of the overall defensive...

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5. Countermeasures to Boost-Phase Intercept

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pp. 215-224

Countermeasures that limit the effectiveness of traditional ballistic missile defenses—decoys, radar blackout, defense suppression, etc.—are well known. A comparable set of countermeasures, no less daunting for being less familiar...

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6. A Word on "Old" BMD and "New" BMD

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pp. 225-228

No one knows whether directed-energy weapons can be built with the characteristics assigned to the hypothetical systems of Section 3. Even if such systems can be built, it is not clear that their performance will match, much less exceed...

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7. A Hypothetical System Architecture

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pp. 229-234

Most analysts of boost-phase BMD assume that midcourse and terminal BMDs will augment the boost-phase layer. This section assembles a hypothetical layered defense system in toto. This system is purely illustrative, taking current...

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8. Defensive Goals I: The Perfect Defense

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pp. 235-242

No assessment of whether a defensive system "works" or not is meaningful without a clear and direct statement of the goal of the deployment. Though there has been much discussion of the feasibility of boost-phase BMD, proponents...

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9. Defensive Goals II: Less-Than-Perfect Defense

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pp. 243-250

A host of less grandiose goals than perfect or near-perfect defense assume importance in certain theories about the workings of nuclear deterrence and the requirements of U.S. security. Thoughtful observers debate not just...

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10. Principal Judgments and Observations

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pp. 251-254

1. The prospect that emerging "Star Wars" technologies, when further developed, will provide a perfect or near-perfect defense system, literally removing from the hands of the Soviet Union the ability to do socially mortal...

Appendix

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pp. 255-271

Ballistic Missile Defenses and U.S. National Security ("Hoffman Report")

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Acknowledgements

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p. 275

This report is a summary of work performed by a Study Team whose members were: Mr. Fred S. Hoffman, Director; Mr. Leon Sloss, Deputy Director; Mr. Fritz Ermarth; Mr. Craig Hartsell; Mr. Frank Hoeber; Dr. Marvin King; Mr. Paul Kozemchak; Lt. Gen. C. J. LeVan, USA (Ret.); Dr. James J. Martin; Mr. Marc Millot...

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Preface

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p. 276

President Reagan has directed an "effort to define a long-term research and development program...to achieve our ultimate goal of eliminating the threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles...." The President noted that the achievement of the ultimate goal was a "formidable technical task" that...

Contents

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p. 277

A. Major Conclusions and Recommendations

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pp. 279-282

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B. Supporting Rationale

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pp. 283-290

President Reagan's directive to assess the role of defensive systems has required the FSSS to consider the relation of these systems to our strategic objectives and to Soviet programs and policy. The role of intermediate defensive systems has been a major focus of our study....

The Strategic Defense Initiative: Defense Technologies Study ("Fletcher Report")

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pp. 291-295

CONTENTS

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p. 297

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PREFACE

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p. 299

In March 1983 President Reagan established as a long-term national goal an end to the threat of ballistic missiles. He said that "we must thoroughly examine every opportunity for reducing tensions and for introducing stability into the strategic calculus...

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE DEFENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES STUDY

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pp. 301-317

The Defensive Technologies Study analyzed the technological feasibility of developing an effective defense against ballistic missiles and proposed programs in the areas of...

ORGANIZATION

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p. 319

DEFENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES STUDY TEAM MEMBERSHIP

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pp. 320-322

GLOSSARY

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pp. 323-327