Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication,

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

...Knowlton, Roger A. Morse, Richard Nowogrodzki, P. Kirk Visscher, and Edward 0. Wilson. I also feel deeply grateful to have had the opportunity to spend the past fourteen years in three quite different, but complementary, intellectual environments...

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1 Introduction

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pp. 3-8

...its capacity for coding precise yet flexible messages. Honeybee workers display an extraordinarily elaborate division of labor by age, switching their labor roles at least four times as they grow older. When a honeybee colony needs a new home, several...

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2 Honeybees in Nature

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pp. 9-19

...years, from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene, followed by an approximately 30 million year period of relative stasis in morphological evolution, from the Miocene to the present. This pattern suggests, assuming that honeybee social behavior and...

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3 The Honeybee Societies

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pp. 20-38

...three days of larval life. The critical difference between the food fed to queen and worker larvae is apparently simply the concentration of hexose sugars; royal jelly and worker jelly contain about 35 percent and 10 percent sugar, respectively. Larvae...

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4 The Annual Cycle of Colonies

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pp. 39-48

...workers. Moreover, rather than entering chilly dormancy, as is the rule for insects in cold climates, honeybee colonies resist the cold, regulating the temperature of the colony perimeter above about IO0C even in ambient temperatures of - 30°C or colder. To achieve such temperature control, honeybees nest inside protective cavities...

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5 Reproduction

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pp. 49-70

...reproductive success. On the other hand, because each colony member possesses a unique genotype, we should also expect considerable conflict among individuals over the use of a colony's resources in reproduction. Thus the particular patterns observed...

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6 Nest Building

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pp. 71-79

...including cavity volume, entrance size, distance from the parent nest, and presence of combs from an earlier colony—are independently assessed to produce an overall judgment of a site's quality. Nest-site selection by honeybees is further...

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7 Food Collection

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pp. 80-106

...behavior comes when a bee discovers a highly profitable patch of flowers and recruits her sisters to her rich find. This recruitment depresses the first bee's rate of food retrieval, both because it consumes time she could spend collecting and because it...

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8 Temperature Control

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pp. 107-122

...which has adapted to this stable environment. When Himmer (1927) reared capped brood (pupae and late-stage larvae) in an incubator, he found that few bees emerged at below 28°C or above 37°C, that bees reared at 28-30°C reached adulthood...

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9 Colony Defense

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pp. 123-137

...prey or host (Janzen 1981). However, the wealth of honeybee defense adaptations also reflects certain distinctive properties of this insect's biology. One is the sessile nature of honeybee colonies. Because their nests are costly to build, and are often...

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10 Behavioral Ecology of Tropical Honeybees

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pp. 138-160

...Thus, attempts to identify the adaptive origins of the honeybee's social system will often prove most fruitful when pursued with tropical bees. Traits for which this is especially true include reproduction by swarming, regulation of broodnest temperature...

Literature Cited

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pp. 161-192

Author Index

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pp. 193-196

Subject Index

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pp. 197-202