Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xiv

This study would never have been undertaken were it not for our "discovery" of Cocha Cashu in 1973. At that time I had been traveling in Peru and other South American countries for ten years, but had never before seen a place in the lowlands that was utterly pristine. ...

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1 Introduction

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pp. 3-7

Primates are ideally suited for ecological study. Their size and diurnal habits put them comfortably within the range of human sensory abilities. Unlike birds, they can be followed and observed continuously throughout the daily activity period. But most importantly, primates gradually come to accept an observer as part of the landscape, ...

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2 The Study Site: Its Climate and Vegetation

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pp. 8-24

Here I describe the environmental setting at Cocha Cashu. The chapter opens with a cursory account of the several types of vegetation that enter into the local habitat mosaic. Most of these are serai stages in successional sequences initiated by changes in the course of the river. ...

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3 The Primate Community at Cocha Cashu

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pp. 25-39

Throughout most of this work we shall focus with myopic concentration on the lives of five species of primates. This is an inevitable and unavoidable weakness of an intensive study. In full realization of this, it will be helpful to place our subjects in perspective before narrowing the frame of reference. ...

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4 Activity Patterns

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pp. 40-58

The nature of an animal's diet imposes many constraints on its use of time and space. In this chapter I shall consider the use of time by the five species, particularly as it relates to their food-finding needs. Being omnivores, they stand between herbivores and insectivorous predators in trophic position, and in this we should expect to see that their behavior is intermediate, ...

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5 The Use of Plant Resources

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pp. 59-95

We saw in the previous chapter that all five species of monkeys devote major amounts of time to feeding on plant resources and to foraging for prey. The differences between plant and animal resources in their degrees of dispersion and in the techniques used to harvest them are so profound that it seems best to discuss these two components of the diet separately. ...

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6 Foraging for Prey

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pp. 96-128

The importance of animal prey to the five species was suggested in the analysis of their time budgets. Foraging was for all a major, if not the major, activity, occupying from 15 to 49% of their waking lives. Such substantial investments of time imply that the capture of prey is a matter of necessity and not merely a casual pastime. ...

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7 Ranging Patterns

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pp. 129-154

It is possible to imagine several ways in which the harvesting of essential resources, or some other important life function, could lead to distinct patterns of spatial utilization. A species that depended on uniformly distributed, self-renewing resources, for example, could be expected to cover its territory or home range more or less evenly (Cody 1971; Pyke et al. 1977). ...

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8 Ecology of Mixed Troops

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pp. 155-189

The study and understanding of mixed-species groups of primates can help us learn about the ecological benefits of sociality. First, there is usually no possible basis for social attraction between species based on access to sexual partners. Second, there is no influence of kinship or inclusive fitness to complicate social behavior between species. ...

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9 Ecological Relationships in the Manu Primate Community

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pp. 190-210

Here I provide a qualitative overview of ecological relationships among the thirteen primate species inhabiting the Manu region. Due to the large number of species, it has not yet been possible to complete long-term studies of all of them, and consequently the depth of our knowledge is somewhat uneven. ...

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10 Synthesis and Conclusions

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pp. 211-234

In this chapter I shall try to resolve some major issues that have been lurking just below the surface in several of the preceding chapters. These issues concern the adaptive interrelationships between home range size, strength of territorial behavior, and group size. ...

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11 Epilogue

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pp. 235-237

The seemingly limitless forest that stretches from the base of the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean is being encroached upon today as never before. Modern man is penetrating into the remotest corners of the Amazon basin in search of timber, minerals, and agricultural land, and vast development projects are already underway. ...

Literature Cited

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pp. 238-252

Indexes

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pp. 253-260