Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xxvi

A description of the origins and purpose of a book, if it is logical enough to be of any use to the reader, cannot help but distort history. This book was not intended at all, and my only purpose in writing it was to get to the end of it. Indeed, I have never intentionally written a book, for although papers are pleasant enough to write, I find writing books unpleasant. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxvii-xviii

Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following for the explicit use of their publications: Atheneum Publishers, New York, New York, for Peter Weiss, The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade. ...

Part 1 : Origins and Consequences

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pp. 1-2

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1. The Greek Mother-Son Relationship: Origins and Consequences

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pp. 3-74

We have few objective portraits of the Athenian character, so thorough was their monopoly of the literature which has come down to us. Even the descriptions put into the mouths of aliens and enemies by Thucydides and the dramatists quiver with self-satisfaction and pleased wonderment. ...

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2. Symbols, the Serpent, and the Oral-Narcissistic Dilemma

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pp. 75-122

While Freud long ago suggested that sexual organs were often represented in dreams through isomorphs [1900, pp. 350-66], in mythology the converse is true; for there are few objects in the physical environment which are not assigned explicit sexual meaning. Thus the Greeks, like many other peoples,1 attached a feminine or maternal significance to earth and a masculine or paternal one to sky, sun, and rain. ...

Part 2 : Mythical Defenses Against the Maternal Threat

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pp. 123-124

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3. Sexual Dominance: Zeus

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pp. 125-136

Jane Harrison complains of the Olympian gods that they were so detached from their roots in the rich soil of popular religion and everyday magic that they became remote, two-dimensional, trivial, and cerebral [1962, 445-79]. Nevertheless they survived, and unless one is prepared to underwrite a theory of automatic lag ...

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4. Masculine Antisepsis: Apollo

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pp. 137-160

The myths surrounding Apollo attempt simply to divest him of all suggestion of maternal enthrallment. He is the personification of anti-matriarchy, the epitome of the sky-god, a crusader against Earth deities. He is all sunlight, Olympian, manifest, rational. He opposes all that is mysterious, hidden, dark, and irrational. ...

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5. Matricide: Orestes

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pp. 161-192

Apollo's characteristics display themselves most vividly in his support of his matricidal proteges, Orestes and Alcmaeon. It is Apollo who suggests the deed in both cases, and it is he who encourages and supports them in carrying it out, and defends them against the avenging Erinyes when it is done. ...

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6. Self-Emasculation: Hephaestus

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pp. 193-209

When I talk of Hephaestus' response as self-emasculation I mean it neither in the sense of actual castration (as in the case of Attis), nor in the sense of symbolic castration (as in Orestes' case). While a psychoanalyst might interpret Hephaestus' lameness as symbolic castration, it would seem of less significance than what might be called his "interpersonal" self-castration. ...

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7. Identification with the Aggressor: Dionysus I, The Ritual

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pp. 210-229

In her discussion of Greek mystery cults Gertrude Levy remarks that "in the ritual of Dionysus the Son eclipsed the Mother" [Levy, p. 292]. I may perhaps be forgiven if I attach to this statement a significance somewhat alien to the context in which it was uttered, for it was not only in the realm of ritual that this eclipse took place. ...

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8. Identification with the Aggressor: Dionysus II, The Attack in the Womb

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pp. 230-263

The use of surrogate figures (stepmothers, mothers-in-law, witches, and monsters) to symbolize negative qualities of the real mother is a familiar phenomenon in the analysis of fantasy. It might be fruitful, therefore, to approach this incident with the assumption that Hera represents a negative aspect of Semele, ...

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9. Identification with the Aggressor: Dionysus III, The Attack on the Neonate

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pp. 264-284

As Rank [1952] first pointed out so dramatically, attempts to destroy infant gods and heroes are not uncommon in the mythologies of Europe and the Mediterranean civilizations, nor indeed, of the entire world. It is more rare, however, for the agent of destruction to be a woman, ...

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10. Identification with the Aggressor: Dionysus IV, The Attack on the Mature God

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pp. 285-307

There is a substantial tradition regarding Dionysus, to the effect that "when he grew to manhood Hera recognized him as Zeus's son, despite the effeminacy to which his education had reduced him, and drove him mad . . ." [Graves, 1955,1, p. 104; see Apollodorus: iii. 5. 1; Euripides: The Cyclops 3]. ...

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11. Maternal De-Sexualization: Perseus

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pp. 308-336

When you enter a grove peopled with ancient trees, higher than the ordinary, and whose boughs are so closely interwoven that the sky cannot be seen, the stately shadows of the wood, the privacy of the place, and the awful gloom cannot but strike you, as with the presence of a deity, ...

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12. The Multiple Defenses of Heracles

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pp. 337-396

"The Glory of Hera" was chosen as the title of this book because it translates the name "Heracles," and hence captures the bitter irony of the Greek mother-son relationship, inasmuch as Hera was also the hero's chief persecutor. Nilsson, while accepting the derivation as incontrovertible, argues that the name is of no importance and antedates the myth itself: ...

Part 3 : Quantifications, Generalizations, and Implications

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pp. 397-398

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13. Familial Emphases in Greek Myth: A Statistical Analysis

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pp. 399-409

In the preceding chapters I have conducted my investigation with a fine humanistic freedom—dwelling upon those examples which illustrate the argument most convincingly, and making generous use of symbolic substitutions. But such a procedure can be misleading, just as long descriptions of gales and hurricanes can distort an estimate of annual rainfall. ...

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14. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Maternal Ambivalence and Narcissism

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pp. 410-439

We have repeatedly observed that the phenomena under consideration here are by no means limited to the culture of classical Greece. One may now ask, how general are they? More precisely, do these processes that I have claimed to be dynamically related in Greek culture appear similarly linked in other societies? ...

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15. Cultural Pathology and Cultural Development

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pp. 440-466

I have tried in the preceding chapters to sketch a circular family pattern common to many societies—one which was in part present in Homeric times but seemed to intensify during the Athenian civilization, and was reflected in Greek mythology and elaborated by Greek tragedians. ...

Appendixes

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p. 467

Appendix I: Aggression in Parent-Child Dyads in Apollodorus

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pp. 468-469

Appendix II: Greek Madness

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p. 470

Appendix III: Family Dyads in Greek Drama

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pp. 471-473

Appendix IV: Narcissism Codes

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pp. 474-480

Bibliography

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pp. 481-502

Index

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pp. 503-513

Series Page

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