Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-viii

List of Contributors

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pp. ix-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xiv

The transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene Epochs was the most significant event in earth history since the extinction of dinosaurs. From the warm, equable climates of the Eocene, the earth underwent significant changes. Global temperature cooled more than any time since the Mesozoic, and the first Antarctic ice sheets appeared. ...

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Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution: An Overview

William A. Berggren, Donald R. Prothero

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pp. 1-28

The middle Eocene to early Oligocene witnessed major changes in global climate and ocean circulation which are reflected in significant turnovers in marine and terrestrial biota. The change from a thermospheric to thermohaline (psychrospheric) circulation is thought to reflect the establishment (and continued, if intermittent, presence) of ice on Antarctica, ...

Part I: The Chronological Framework

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1. Toward a Revised Paleogene Geochronology

William A. Berggren, Dennis V. Kent, John D. Obradovich, Carl C. SuHsher III

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pp. 29-45

New information has become available that requires a revision of Paleogene chronology incorporated in most current Cenozoic time scales (e.g. Berggren et al., 1985a, b). Age estimates for the limits of the Paleogene (the Oligocene/Miocene and Cretaceous/Paleogene boundaries) have not changed appreciably and remain at about 24 Ma and about 66 Ma, respectively. ...

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2. Magnetostratigraphy and Geochronology of the Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America

Donald R. Prothero, Carl C. Swisher III

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pp. 46-73

New 40Ar/39Ar dates and magnetic stratigraphy of Uintan through Whitneyan terrestrial sections in North America radically change long-held interpretations of the age and correlation of North American Land Mammal "Ages" with the Eocene – Oligocene timescale. Current data indicate that earliest Uintan (Shoshonian) faunas, ...

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3. Magnetostratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Members of the Devil's Graveyard Formation (Middle Eocene), Trans-Pecos Texas

Anne H. Walton

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pp. 74-87

The lower and middle members of the Devil's Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas include several localities with Bridgerian and Uintan (middle Eocene) vertebrate faunas. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 150 meters of section in the Devil's Graveyard Formation and subjected to a rigorous program of stepwise thermal demagnetization and measurement. ...

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4. Redefinition of the Duchesnean Land Mammal "Age," Late Eocene of Western North America

Spencer G. Lucas

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pp. 88-105

I redefine the Duchesnean land-mammal "age" (LMA) in western North America on the basis of the Halfway and Lapoint mammalian faunas of the Duchesne River Formation in northeastern Utah and their principal correlatives in South Dakota, New Mexico, California and Texas. ...

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5. Mammalian Range Zones in the Chadronian White River Formation at Flagstaff Rim, Wyoming

Robert J. Emry

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pp. 106-115

When local range zones are plotted for mammalian taxa in the Chadronian White River Formation at Flagstaff Rim in Wyoming, there seem to be no particular stratigraphic levels where first or last appearances of taxa are concentrated that are not also due in part to the mode of preservation. ...

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6. Eocene-Oligocene Climatic Change in North America: The White River Formation near Douglas, East-Central Wyoming

Emmett Evanoff, Donald R. Prothero, Robert H. Lander

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pp. 116-130

The White River Formation exposed near the town of Douglas in east-central Wyoming records a change from a moist subtropical climate in the latest Eocene to a semiarid warm temperate climate in the early Oligocene. These climates are indicated by the sedimentology and nonmarine gastropods (primarily land snails) of the formation. ...

Part II: Climatic Events

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7. Evidence from the Antarctic Continental Margin of Late Paleogene Ice Sheets: A Manifestation of Plate Reorganization and Synchronous Changes in Atmospheric Circulation over the Emerging Southern Ocean?

Louis R. Bartek, Lisa Cirbus Sloan, John B. Anderson, Malcolm I. Ross

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pp. 131-159

A review of the literature and an analysis of Deep Freeze 87, Polar Duke 90 and published data indicates that the first major ice sheet grounding event occurred in the Ross Sea during late Oligocene time. Correlation of a pronounced unconformity in seismic data, to drill cores indicates a shift from temperate/ temperate-glacial to polar-glacial conditions in late Oligocene time. ...

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8. Middle Eocene to Oligocene Stable Isotopes, Climate, and Deep-Water History: The Terminal Eocene Event?

Kenneth G. Miller

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pp. 160-177

The "Terminal Eocene Event" in the marine realm is comprised of a sequence of events that record the climate transition from peak early Eocene warmth to cold, glaciated Oligocene conditions. These events began with a benthic foraminiferal ẟ18O increase of -1.0 ‰ near the early/middle Eocene boundary ...

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9. Late Eocene and Early Oligocene in Southern Australia: Local Neritic Signals of Global Oceanic Changes

Brian McGowran, Graham Moss, Amanda Beecroft

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pp. 178-201

Foraminiferal profiles have been established for two parallel sections through most of the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene in southern Australia. The sections are from the St. Vincent and Otway Basins, chosen to contrast restricted neritic conditions (low plankton numbers) with open conditions (relatively high plankton numbers). ...

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10. Paleogene Climatic Evolution: A Climate Model Investigation of the Influence of Continental Elevation and Sea-Surface Temperature upon Continental Climate

Lisa Cirbus Shan, Eric J. Barron

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pp. 202-217

An atmospheric general circulation model has been used to perform a series of sensitivity experiments to examine the effects of continental elevation and sea surface temperature upon continental climate during the Paleogene. Reconstructed geography of approximately 40 Ma was used for all experiments. ...

Part III: The Marine Record

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11. Eocene-Oligocene Faunal Turnover in Planktic Foraminifera, and Antarctic Glaciation

Gerta Keller, Norman MacLeod, Enriqueta Barrera

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pp. 218-244

Low-latitude planktic foraminiferal populations experienced a major faunal turnover between the late middle to early late Oligocene. This faunal turnover involved over 80% of planktic foraminiferal species and took place quasi-continuously over an interval of approximately 14 m.y. ...

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12. Middle Eocene-Late Oligocene Bathyal Benthic Foraminifera (Weddell Sea): Faunal Changes and Implications for Ocean Circulation

Ellen Thomas

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pp. 245-271

Lower bathyal benthic foraminiferal faunas from Maud Rise (Weddell Sea, Antarctica) underwent gradual, but stepped extinctions from middle Eocene through Oligocene, with steps at about 46.4-44.6 Ma, 40-37 Ma, and 34-31.5 Ma. ...

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13. Late Paleogene Calcareous Nannoplankton Evolution: A Tale of Climatic Deterioration

Marie-Pierre Aubry

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pp. 272-309

Diversity changes and patterns of diachrony and provincialism exhibited by the late Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton are analyzed. The latest Eocene (-37 to 36.3 Ma), often regarded as a time of major extinctions, witnessed only a weak change in diversity compared with the profound turnover that occurred near the middle/late Eocene boundary (-40 Ma) ...

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14. Middle Eocene Through Early Miocene Diatom Floral Turnover

Jack G. Baldauf

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pp. 310-326

A database of occurrence data from the Southern Ocean, the low-latitude Atlantic and Pacific, the Labrador Sea and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea was developed to determine the spatial and temporal response of the diatom flora to oceanographic and climatic changes during the Paleogene and early Neogene. ...

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15. Late Paleogene Dinoflagellate Cysts with Special Reference to the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary

Henk Brinkhuis

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pp. 327-340

This paper aims to summarize developments of Eocene-Oligocene dinoflagellate cyst research of the past decades and to present an inventory of events around the Eocene/ Oligocene (E/O) boundary. Furthermore, the potential of dinoflagellate cyst palynology as a tool for the recognition, ...

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16. The Patterns and Causes of Molluscan Extinction Across the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary

Thor Hansen

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pp. 341-348

The late Eocene extinctions of marine molluscs in the U.S. Gulf Coast were spread out over the entire late Eocene interval. Selective extinction of warm water taxa and the general coincidence of molluscan and planktonic foraminiferal extinctions suggest cooling as the direct cause. ...

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17. Evolution of Paleogene Echinoids: A Global and Regional View

Michael L. McKinney, Kenneth J. McNamara, Burchard D. Carter, Stephen K. Donovan

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pp. 349-367

Echinoid global diversity shows an Eocene peak bounded by much lower diversities in the Paleocene and Oligocene. Regional, stage-level diversity patterns from the United States, Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Mediterranean are presented for a more refined view. ...

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18. Cetacean Evolution and Eocene/Oligocene Environments

R. Ewan Fordyce

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pp. 368-381

Marine mammal evolution during the Eocene-Oligocene involved mainly two groups, the Sirenia and Cetacea. Sirenians were largely restricted to low latitudes, and did not show the taxonomic and structural diversity seen amongst Cetacea. Primitive archaeocete whales appeared about the Ypresian-Lutetian, ...

Part IV: The Terrestrial Record

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19. Paleosols and Changes in Climate and Vegetation Across the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary

Gregory J. Retallack

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pp. 382-398

Fossil soils in alluvial sequences, like those of Badlands National Park, South Dakota, can be evidence for changes in climate and vegetation during Tertiary geological time, supplementing other geological records of paleoclimate, such as eolian sediments, fossil leaves and the isotopic composition of foraminifera. ...

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20. Low-Biomass Vegetation in the Oligocene?

Estella B. Leopold, Gengwu Liu, Scoff Clay-Poole

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pp. 399-420

In this paper we evaluate evidence of desert scrub, grassland, or savanna vegetation types in key mid-continent areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the mid Cenozoic. Low-biomass (plant weight per hectare) vegetation such as these types are linked with climates having moderate to low rainfall that is seasonally distributed. ...

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21. Climatic, Floristic, and Vegetational Changes near the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary in North America

Jack A. Wolfe

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pp. 421-436

Multivariate analysis of the physiognomy of leaf assemblages in western North America indicates that a marked decline in mean annual temperature occurred near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary; this deterioration was also accompanied by an increase in mean annual range of temperature. ...

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22. Vegetational and Floristic Changes Around the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary in Western and Central Europe

Margaret E. Collinson

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pp. 437-450

Northwest Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) and the Weisselster Basin (Germany) yield macrofloral evidence of late Eocene and early Oligocene forest vegetation. This changes from dominantly evergreen subtropical (late Eocene) to mixed evergreen and deciduous with a warm but seasonal climate (early Oligocene). ...

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23. Western North American Reptile and Amphibian Record Across the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary and Its Climatic Implications

J. Howard Hutchison

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pp. 451-463

The changes in herpetofaunas across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the western interior of North America appear to have begun as early as the Uintan, with a general decrease in diversity of aquatic amphibians and reptiles. The interval between the Chadronian and Orellan (Eocene/Oligocene boundary) marks a sharp terminal decline in aquatic forms, ...

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24. Mammalian Faunas in North America of Bridgerian to Early Arikareean "ages" (Eocene and Oligocene)

Richard K. Stucky

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pp. 464-493

Diversity patterns of mammalian faunas from the Bridgerian through Arikareean Land Mammal "Ages" (middle Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 50-24 million years ago) are discussed in relation to intercontinental migration, paleoclimates and paleofloral patterns. Diversity is analyzed in terms of the number of taxa (species richness) and their relative abundance and geographic distribution. ...

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25. British Mammalian Paleocommunities Across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition and Their Environmental Implications

J. J. Hooker

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pp. 494-515

Faunal turnovers, changes in species numbers and in ecological diversity in the southern English mammal faunas from the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene are used to interpret environmental changes at this important time. Integration with similar ecological information from the Franco-Swiss Province demonstrates latitudinal differences in mammalian habitats early on, ...

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26. The Evolution of Mammalian Faunas in Europe During the Eocene and Oligocene

Serge Legendre, Jean-Louis Hartenberger

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pp. 516-528

An overview of the Eocene and Oligocene mammalian history in Europe shows three main events: (i) the Paleocene-Eocene event, the less documented, corresponds to the disappearance of primitive mammals and the arrival of modern orders; (ii) the Lutetian-Bartonian event corresponds to a small immigration wave; ...

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27. The Chinese Oligocene: A Preliminary Review of Mammalian Localities and Local Faunas

Banyue Wang

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pp. 529-547

The study of the Oligocene mammals of China began in 1922, when the Third Asiatic Expedition led by R. C. Andrews made the first discovery of Tertiary mammals from Houldjin beds near Iren Dabasu, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), China. The beds were considered to be Oligocene by Osborn one year later. ...

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28. The Eocene-Oligocene Transition in Continental Africa

D. Tab Rasmussen, Thomas M. Bourn, Elwyn L. Simons

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pp. 548-566

Knowledge of African terrestrial mammals during the Paleogene is limited to 12 sites, most of which are in North Africa. Only one of these, the Fayum region of Egypt, has produced an extensive mammalian record. The Eocene/ Oligocene boundary has been difficult to identify in Africa because of the high proportion of unique endemic taxa, ...

Index

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pp. 567-568