Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-v

Contents

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p. vii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

My interest in secondary school reform in Imperial Germany was first stimulated by a brief report on this topic by Peter Vinten-Johansen to Professor Hans Gatzke's graduate seminar on the Second Reich at Yale University. I...

Abbreviations

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p. xi

Part 1: The Background

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Introduction

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pp. 3-15

ON THE MORNING of 4 December 1890, in the auditorium of the Prussian Ministry of Religion, Education, and Medicine at Unter den Linden 4, the thirtyone- year-old Kaiser Wilhelm II addressed a conference of...

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One. Bildung and the Gebildeten

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pp. 16-35

ALTHOUGH its roots reached back to the Latin schools of the Middle Ages, the classical Gymnasium with which the Kaiser found so much fault in 1890 was essentially a product of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries....

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Two. The Gymnasium in Imperial Germany

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pp. 36-56

THE DEBATE of the school question in Imperial Germany produced such a variety of opinions about the current condition of the secondary schools that the historian faces a challenging task in attempting to determine whose...

Part 2: Issues and Inaction, 1868-1888

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Three. The "Demands of the Present"

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pp. 59-118

WHEN Kaiser Wilhelm told the school conference of 1890 that the Gymnasium had failed to keep pace with the needs of modern Germany, he was making a statement both obvious and problematical. That the classical...

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Four. The Overburdening of Youth

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pp. 119-139

EUROPEAN culture in the fin-de-siecle was obsessed by fears of decadence, degeneration, and nervousness. In the post-Darwinian world, where the notion of the survival of the fittest was applied indiscriminately to all areas of...

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Five. Raising Young Germans

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pp. 140-168

INTIMATELY related to both the interest in modernizing the secondary schools and the fears associated with the overburdening of Gymnasium pupils was the third theme sounded in Kaiser Wilhelm's speech to the school conference...

Part 3: The Kaiser and the School Conferences

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Six. The Kaiser Intervenes

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pp. 171-207

OVERSHADOWED by the political, diplomatic, and military events of a thirty-year reign, Wilhelm II's ideas and actions in the area of school reform have received little attention from historians of Imperial Germany.1 Yet his...

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Seven. The School Conference of 1890

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pp. 208-242

THE Prussian school conference of 1890 convened on 4 December in an atmosphere of apprehension on all sides. Educational conservatives feared that the conference would produce further surrender to the "demands of the present,"...

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Eight. Reprise: The School Conference of 1900

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pp. 243-291

FRIEDRICH Paulsen's prediction in the wake of the school conference of 1890 that another reform of secondary education would be needed within a decade proved to be accurate. The school conference of 1900, in contrast to the...

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Nine. Comparisons and Conclusions

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pp. 292-313

BY 1908, all holders of an Abitur, whether male or female, whether from a classical, semiclassical, or modern school, could matriculate at any German university, even if certain fields such as theology continued to require specific preparation....

Bibliography

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pp. 315-355

Index

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pp. 357-365