Cover

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Title Page, Copyrigth Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Tables

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

I could not have written this book without the feedback and support of many wonderful people. First, I would like to thank editor Martin Medhurst for backing this project and guiding me throughout the revision process. I am also deeply grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their discerning remarks on earlier drafts of this work....

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Notational Scheme

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pp. xi-xii

After each excerpt from a given news report, you will note a parenthetical citation with the following information: journalistic institution, the date of the report, and the speaker or writer of the discourse. Thus, the following parenthetical— (NBC/2.5/AM)— refers to the NBC television news broadcast on February 5, 2003, and, more specifically, to Andrea Mitchell’s...

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Introduction. The Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell’s U.N. Speech

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pp. 1-22

On the morning of 5 February 2003— a Wednesday— Secretary of State Colin Powell addressed the United Nations Security Council in New York City. In a nearly 90- minute PowerPoint presentation, Powell argued that Iraq was hiding weapons of mass destruction from inspectors in direct violation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1441. These weapons posed a significant threat to world peace, Powell...

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Chapter One. The Campaign for War in Iraq: Contextualizing Powell’s Speech in Political and Media Discourse

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pp. 23-44

On February 24, 2001, Colin Powell indicated to reporters that economic sanctions against Iraq had worked: Saddam Hussein posed no significant threat to the Gulf region, let alone to the United States. As Powell put it, “[Saddam Hussein] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction....

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Chapter Two. The Chief Prosecutor and the Iraqi Regime: Intertextual Ethos and Transitive Chains of Authority

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pp. 45-76

Several sources have suggested that George W. Bush deliberately chose Colin Powell to deliver the U.N. address because Powell, unlike other members of the Bush team, had a sterling public reputation. As Isikoff and Corn (2006) put it: “The idea— not a subtle one— was to attach Powell’s credibility to the case for war” (174). Similarly, Unger (2007) argues that the lack of evidence in Powell’s...

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Chapter Three. Undercutting Saddam’s Denials: Precontextualization and Audience Alignment

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pp. 77-128

Recontextualization involves extracting elements from one context and relocating them in another (Bauman & Briggs 1990; Linell 1998). Thus, a journalist reporting Colin Powell’s speech necessarily recontextualizes that speech— extracting Powell’s words from his address and relocating them in a given news narrative. Importantly, this kind of reporting is oriented towards the past. However, as Bakhtin (1981) notes, discourse is not only “oriented toward the ‘already...

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Chapter Four. America’s Best Intelligence: Recontextualization and Rhetorical Transformation

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pp. 129-174

Chapter 3 focused on how journalists projected a future rhetorical event and pre- positioned audiences to adopt certain attitudes toward Powell and his rhetoric. I termed this type of anticipatory intertextuality “precontextualization.” In a sense, journalists pre- formed Colin Powell’s address— construing it as a “real thing” even before it took place. The present chapter shifts focus to how journalists...

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Chapter Five. Political Discourse, the Press, and the Public Good

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pp. 175-198

This book has examined twenty- four hours in the extended rhetorical life of Colin Powell’s U.N. address. Specifically, I have investigated how Powell’s multimodal presentation was transformed as it was pre- and recontextualized in various mainstream news narratives. At the same time, I have studied how, as a consequence of...

Appendix A. Data Corpus

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pp. 199-200

Appendix B. Synoptic Views of Discourse

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pp. 201-216

Appendix C. Intertextual Precedents for Powell’s Arguments

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pp. 217-238

Appendix D. Attitudinal Discourse in Linguistic and Multimodal Texts

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pp. 239-246

Appendix E. Attitudes about Powell and Iraq

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pp. 247-250

Appendix F. Conventions of Precontextualizationin Mainstream Journalism

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pp. 251-254

Appendix G. The Engagement System, Temporality, and Presence

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pp. 255-260

Appendix H. Coding Categories for Audience Repositioning

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pp. 261-270

Appendix I. A Four- Phased Analytic Approach

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pp. 271-278

Notes

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pp. 279-310

Bibliography

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pp. 311-346

Index

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pp. 347-369