Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword to the Series

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pp. ix-xiv

...experience and its historians' interpretation of that experience? What approaches to historical study can their outstanding works propose that we might not have already learned from the mentalites analyzed by the French, the documentation of class and elite...

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Federico Chabod: A Bio-Bibliographical Profile

FRANCESCO TUCCARI

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pp. xv-xxvi

...complex, particularly during the years of Mussolini's dictatorship. His convictions were thoroughly liberal, but his predilection for the studious life of a professor overrode any vocation for active politics. In his own practice of what he called his "trade of historian" he...

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Federico Chabod: Historian of Italian Foreign Policy

WALTER MATURI

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pp. xvii-xxxvi

...first impression he gave was that of a Piedmontese officer of the old school, the sort who would have known how to maintain the proper reserve toward superiors and inferiors, who would have felt himself on duty even when he was out of uniform, and whose...

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Preface

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pp. xxxvii-xliv

...Volpe, Pier Francesco Gaslini, and Gerolamo Bassani, the present secretary of the Institute for the Study of International Politics. Above all it was this assistance that made it possible to obtain free access to the Historical Archive of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs...

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A Note on Sources and Abbreviations

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pp. xlv-xlvi

...years 1936-1943 (the period, that is, in which the research was accomplished). In recent years the archive has been reorganized (in fact, this reorganization is taking place at the moment I write), and the distinct former series, such as "Riservato," have...

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Translator's Note

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pp. xlvii-xlviii

...the dialects of Piedmont and Lombardy), he kept the citation in the original language, but I have reduced all citations (or almost all) to English. On the other hand, he translated the infrequent English sources cited into Italian (except for a handful of literary...

Part One. Passions and Ideas

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pp. 1-2

I. The Franco-Prussian War and Italy

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pp. 3-4

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1. What Prussia Had to Teach

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pp. 5-66

...was now part of Italy and Prussia was supreme in Europe, and the two great events of the dramatic September of 1870, a month that would not be forgotten "until the distant revolution...

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2. The Lesson of "Reality" in France

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pp. 67-88

...there was more. The triumphant demonstration of the art of military victory by Bismarck and Moltke had thrown conventional values into confusion, as the shock waves of the war spread...

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3. Against the "Realism" of Bismarck

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pp. 89-144

...made our policy dependent for a long time on that of the French. Now this fetter is broken, and it is in everybody's interest that it not be reforged. The resolution of the Roman...

II. The Idea of Rome

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pp. 145-146

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4. The "Mission" of Rome

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pp. 147-172

...aftermath. The Roman question was at the center of Italian policy both before and after 20 September in any case; it was the porro unum [the most important thing] in the life of the nation...

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5. Science or Renovatio Ecclesiae?

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pp. 173-234

...religion was one for the free conscience of the citizens. There was a corollary: "the coexistence of a free church alongside a free state is to be based not on a treaty of reconciliation between the two, but rather on the nature of the law of the state itself. The...

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6. The Shadow of Caesar

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pp. 235-261

...would have to forget the past, as Bonghi hoped the Italians would, and live entirely for the present—which might indeed appear less glorious when viewed at close range. Indeed it could bruise and depress one, whereas one read about the past in historical...

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7. The Anti-Romans

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pp. 262-268

...main point; in fact it is surprising to see a man like Jacini, engaged in a debate concerning a problem as important as the choice of the nation's capital, proposing objections of little importance, ones that were quickly and easily refuted. Indeed, Cavour had...

III. Order and Liberty

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pp. 269-270

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8. The Conservative Program

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pp. 271-292

...Anyway, compared to other cities in Italy, for a number of years Rome was simply engaged in a struggle to absorb the impact of its status as the capital. The condition of the public offices made the Urbs seem like a rooming house...

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9. Among the Elite

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pp. 293-324

...blocking a mental shift from beneficence and public charity, the remedies best suited to a world of individuals, to drastic reforms of the organization of work itself, the necessary remedy when social strata were in question, was the attachment to hereditary or acquired...

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10. Liberty and Law

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pp. 325-374

...overturn the established political order. But now it began to be used to designate this new sect as well, which wanted, as it seemed, to subvert the social order too. Republican...

IV. The Present and the Future

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pp. 375-376

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11. The Present and the Future

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pp. 377-398

...those who admired German power believed that their decision to express their admiration was a service to the cause of liberty, a cause on which the tyrant Napoleon III had trampled...

Part Two: The Objective Worldand The World of Men

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pp. 399-400

I. The Objective World

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pp. 401-402

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12. Finance and the Army

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pp. 403-421

...profound. Here, notwithstanding the indubitable progress that was made from year to year, it was obvious at a glance how much this nation of ancient culture was a fledgling from the point of view of technical knowledge and production, and how backward the conditions...

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13. Political Apathy

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pp. 422-437

...a stop to the restless passage from one desire to another, from one longing to another, in order not to consume all the nation's energies in this endless pursuit of ever-new aspirations...

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14. High Politics or the Politics of Tranquillity?

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pp. 438-464

...political world were known for their concern for, and their cultural and practical training in, this or that sector of domestic politics—finance, administration, relations with the church—not for their diplomatic skill. They had other things to worry about...

II. The World of Men

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pp. 465-466

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15. Emilio Visconti Venosta

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pp. 467-495

...appearance: he was tall and thin with long reddish side whiskers which he frequently stroked with an English gesture that accentuated the first impression he gave of calm and inner control, even of British phlegm. The sensitive Emilio who cried easily, and seemed a sorrowing...

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16. Costantino Nigra

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pp. 496-510

...who again in 1866 had exerted pressure on La Marmora to force him to commit himself to action and war; the tall, blond, and elegant Nigra, with his wide, gleaming eyes...

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17. Count de Launay

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pp. 511-514

...a favorite of the king who was publicly praised by La Marmora as a worthy product of the good old diplomacy of the kingdom of the house of Savoy, the other side of the coin...

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18. Count di Robilant

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pp. 515-535

...close accord with Germany.2 This made him disapprove of the policy of Visconti Venosta, which he judged to be too "conciliatory" to Paris,3 so much so that de Launay, when he learned that his friend had been chosen for Vienna, hoped this would mean that the two...

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19. Lanza and Minghetti

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pp. 536-538

...intransigent, somewhat in the manner of Ricasoli, and thus had real qualities as a statesman, especially at delicate moments. He did not accommodate himself easily to the trivial skirmishes of parliamentary life and was sometimes a little too susceptible, but basically...

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20 Vittorio Emanuele II

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pp. 539-570

...projects of a king. His caustic verbal exchanges with Sella were featured in popular mythology, as when he made a regally scornful reference to cloth merchants, and Sella replied proudly that cloth merchants had always honored their signature, whereas...

Bibliography

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pp. 571-582

Index

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pp. 583-593

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About the Author

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pp. 594-594

...of History at the University of Rome and Director of the Italian Institute for Historical Studies in Naples. WILLIAM MCCUAIG teaches early modern European history at the University...