Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword to the Series

CHARLES S. MAIER

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pp. vii-xiv

...experience and its historians' interpretation of that experience? What approaches to historical study can their outstanding works propose that we might not have already learned from the mentalites analyzed by the French, the documentation...

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Foreword

MASSIMO L. SALVADORI

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pp. xv-xxxvi

...The first thing that may strike the reader who picks up this book is the adjective "ideological" that Bobbio has placed in his title. It is an adjective that is not only widely used in contemporary...

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Biographical Note

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pp. xxxvii-xxxviii

...Lincei since 1966 and a Corresponding Member of the British Academy from 1965. In June 1984 Bobbio was named by President Sandro Pertini Senator for Life, according to Art. 59 of the Italian Constitution. He holds honorary...

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Preface

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pp. xxxix-xl

...years later, in 1972, it was republished by the Cooperativa Libraria Universitaria Torinese (CLUT) in the form of supplementary materials for the use of students...

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Translator's Note

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pp. xli-xliv

...Milan, in 1990. It incorporates corrections to the translation and additions to the text by Norberto Bobbio. Bruno Bongiovanni has provided the bibliography and explanatory notes at the end of the book (signaled in the text with an asterisk)...

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1. Positivism and Marxism

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pp. 3-14

...overturned the constituted order, not by substituting one political class for another but by replacing the rule of the politicians and the metaphysicians with that of the industrialists and the scientists. As a philosophy of history, positivism from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer discovered that humanity's...

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2. Catholics and the Modern World

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pp. 15-32

...antagonistic vision of society that they shared, they preferred movement to tranquility and conflict to order, they believed in progress through struggle, and they put social peace at the end, not, like the conservatives of all ages, at the beginning...

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3. The Forces of the Irrational

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pp. 33-44

...Positivism was philosophically less sophisticated than historical materialism but the political situation was not revolutionary— indeed, it was even particularly open...

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4. The Antidemocrats

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pp. 45-56

...inclined critics, and obsessive nationalists— condemned democracy because it was democracy, not as a historically inadequate form of government but as an absolute evil and a degeneration of politics, which had always...

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5. The Two Socialisms

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pp. 57-68

...ideas. For some years, Nationalists and revolutionary syndicalists made up the two extremes of reaction against a social democracy allied with liberalism to conserve and develop an immature democracy based, albeit with many defects and failings, on the model...

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6. Benedetto Croce

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pp. 69-80

...its abstract intellectualism and faith in reform through science. Croce unleashed his own attack against positivism, calling on the support of both historical materialism and irrationalism, hence having these currents as allies (at...

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7. The Lesson of Facts

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pp. 81-90

...philosophical delirium of Gentile. What little remained of liberal and democratic thought—of civil liberalism and nondemagogic democratic currents—in the prefascist...

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8. World War I: An Interlude

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pp. 91-102

...founded on war that peace would be inevitable because it would be beneficial. The second was romantic. Starting from a dramatic and dialectical view of history, it considered war inevitable and beneficial. War was either bad only in appearance...

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9. Between Revolution and Reaction

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pp. 103-121

...changed nothing." The new generation's mentors (Gobetti's, for instance) were men of the preceding generation: Croce and Gentile, Pareto and Mosca, Einaudi and...

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10. The Ideology of Fascism

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pp. 122-132

...thought to programs and quite another to affirm the primacy of action over thought, as Mussolini and his followers did repeatedly, or to celebrate the virtue of action for its own sake. That affirmation was already an ideology...

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11. Croce in Opposition

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pp. 133-142

...and the Gentilians had been kept at bay, fascism failed to produce a culture of its own. The only traces it has left in the history of Italian culture are rhetorical flourishes, literary bombast, and doctrinal improvisations. This does...

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12. The Ideals of the Resistance

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pp. 143-156

...could not separate the practice of passive resistance from preparation for active resistance when the occasion arose. In the meantime, the Spanish Civil War provided the first test of active resistance for the organized antifascism that had existed for some years...

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13. The Years of Commitment

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pp. 157-168

...just as the conservatives had predicted to the impatient revolutionaries of the younger generation. This was true at least in the countries where the British and American armies had aided and overseen the liberation, and where the political superstructure...

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14. Democracy on Trial

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pp. 169-186

...far, none have been successful—to strip republican democracy of its legitimacy. Worker agitation reached an unprecedented scope and intensity in the so-called "hot autumn"—autunno ciildo. Secret power groups of the reactionary...

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15. Toward a New Republic?

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pp. 187-202

...investigation of worker awareness that Quaderni rossi had sponsored but never managed to complete, it was published posthumously in that review the following year. In it, Panzieri attacked...

Explanatory Notes

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pp. 203-214

Bibliography

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pp. 215-228

Index

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pp. 229-239