Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Quote

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Contents

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p. vii

Plates and Figures

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pp. xiii-xviii

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Foreword to the Series by Charles S. Maier

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pp. xix-xxvi

What is the value of reading modern Italian history? What lessons might Americans, and an English-language public more generally, derive from Italy's national experience and its historians' interpretation of that experience? What approaches to historical study can their outstanding works propose that we might not have already learned from the men-...

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Introduction to the English Translation

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pp. xxvii-xliv

Emilio Sereni was born in Rome on 13 August 1907 into an old established Jewish family of professional and intellectual tendencies. His father had been among the physicians who attended the Italian royal house, and members of his mother's family, from Pisa, were prominent in physics, film, and law.1 His personal biography, his political career in ...

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Preface

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pp. 3-14

In the sketch of a history of the agricultural landscape of Italy that we present here to readers, we have tried to collect and express in a summa rized and unspecialized way, without erudite apparatus, the results of an investigation that we pursued for long years, up to 1955. In fact, this essay was drafted in 1955, although various events retarded its publica ...

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I. Natural Landscape and Agricultural Landscape

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pp. 15-18

IF agricultural landscape means, as it does, the form that man, in the course ana, for the ends of his productive agricultural activity, consciously and systematically imposes on the natural landscapeit does not seem that one can speak of an Italian agricultural landscape, in the proper sense of the term, for periods before the Greek colonization and the Etruscan ...

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II. Ancient Italy

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pp. 19-50

Diodorus Siculus tells us in his Histories how, after the destruction of Sybaris (510 B.C.), the new Panhellenic colony of Thurii was founded (in 446 B.C.) according to a regular geometric layout, and that the land near the city was distributed to the first colonists according to the same orthogonal plan, utilizing parallel lines. It does not seem, in the foundation of Thurii, that this rigorous geometric plan was inspired by the rational urbanistic doctrines of Hippodamus of Miletus. Well before Hippodamus, at any event,...

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III. The Early Middle Ages and the Feudal Era

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pp. 51-86

We have already indicated, as we will have occasion to do again as this study progresses, how in a given society the interest and taste for pictorial landscape rise and fall often in close conjunction with the interest and the taste the society itself shows for the more or less definite forms it imposes on the natural landscape, in the course and for the ends of its agricultural activity. This is not, to be sure, a mechanical reflection, that can be abstracted from...

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IV. The Age of the Communes

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pp. 87-116

This landscape of Folgore da San Gimignano—which, in the new taste for a picturesque landscape awakening in Tuscan literature, seems reflected in the detail from San Cosmo and San Damiano of the Beato Angelico, reproduced in Plate 18—was not only an ideal landscape of this age of transition; it also reflected a reality, in which the new landscape elements of communal society (the "small town," the "thirty villas") were mixed with...

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V. The Age of the Renaissance

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pp. 117-184

In Plates 21 and 22, two paintings by Lorenzetti allowed us to follow the changes that individual initiative of clearing and plantation introduced in the hill landscapes of Italy in the communal period, in zones not too distant from centers of habitation. From a natural landscape hardly touched by the initiative of any individual or group, one thus passed, in the painting...

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VI. The Age of the Counter-Reformation and Foreign Domination

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pp. 185-224

Between the age of the Renaissance and the Counter-Reformation, the experiments of great Italians, from Leonardo to Galilei to Torricelli, who founded the modern science of hydraulics, began more informed and expert improvements in river systems, which not even wars, economic and political decline, and foreign domination entirely succeeded in halting. One cannot escape the impression, however, that already in the mid-sixteenth century...

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VII. The Age of Enlightened Despotism and Reforms

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pp. 225-258

Among the Italian states, the Republic of Venice was undoubtedly the one that was best able to resist the interference of the church and foreign powers in the age of the Counter-Reformation. Thus in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the decline of commerce of the Serene Republic, somewhat later than that of Florence, produced even here an increased flow of capital...

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VIII. The Age of the Risorgimento

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pp. 259-288

Throughout Tuscany, and to a lesser extent in Umbria and the Marche, the age of reforms marked a period of great impetus for plantations of trees and shrubs, which expanded and thickened rapidly on the hills and plains. Already about 1760, Targioni-Tozzetti called attention to the fact that in his time rows of olive trees, for instance, were planted gener ...

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IX. Italian Unification

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pp. 289-346

In the age of the Risorgimento and Italian unification, and then up to our own days, a growing importance was assumed by a new agent that operated with great power to effect a basic reelaboration and broad geo graphical redistribution of the forms of the agricultural landscape. The beginnings of railway construction in Italy seemed at first to be of quite ...

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X. An Agricultural Panorama of Contemporary Italy

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pp. 347-380

What we have revealed of the process of elaboration of the principle types of landscapes of Italy in the preceding chapters, will permit us to treat the larger contours of an agricultural panorama of contemporary Italy more rapidly in this concluding chapter, as observed from the par ticular viewpoint of the forms of the landscape. It is necessary to indicate ...

Glossary

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pp. 381-384

Index

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pp. 385-389

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About the Author and Translator

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pp. 390-390

Emilio Sereni (1907-1971), a Jewish intellectual and an early member of the Italian Communist Party, played an important role in the resistance movement during World War II. After the war, he served as a senator while carrying on his influential work as a historian. R. Burr Litchfield is Professor of History at Brown University. ...