Cover

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Title page, Series page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. 3-5

List of Figures

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pp. 5-6

List of Maps

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p. 6

List of Habitat Images

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p. 6

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Preface

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p. 7

This Princeton Pocket Guide to the mammals of China is designed to give ready access to those encountering the diverse mammal fauna of China. This book is an outgrowth of the earlier comprehensive A Guide to the Mammals of China (Smith and Xie 2008). ...

Contributors

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pp. 7-8

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Introduction

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pp. 8-18

China is a magnificent country and one of the most diverse on Earth. Its size ranks fourth among the world’s nations (9,596,960 km2), and it is home to over 1.3 billion people. The topography of China ranges from the highest elevation on Earth (Mount Everest, or Chomolungma; 8,850 m) to one of the lowest (Turpan Basin; 154 m below sea level). ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 18-34

Financial assistance for this project was provided by the China Council for International Cooperation in Environment and Development, from funds made available by the governments of Norway (with special thanks to Peter Schei) and Sweden. ...

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Class Mammalia—The Mammals

Mammals belong to the class Mammalia, subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata, kingdom Animalia. In spite of considerable variation in morphological structure among mammals, there is a suite of unique characteristics that defines the class. Pelage, or hair, is present in at least some stage of development in all mammals. ...

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Order Proboscidea

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pp. 36-37

The elephants are unmistakable. There are two genera of elephants, one in Africa (Loxodonta) with two recognized species, and one in Asia (Elephas), the range of which includes China. The Asian Elephant is distinguished from the African forms by having smaller ears and a single lip on the end of its trunk, compared with two lips in African elephants. ...

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Order Sirenia

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pp. 37-38

This order of large herbivorous marine mammals contains three families (one extinct) totaling five species and is characterized by paddle-like forelimbs, heavy bones, no hind limbs, and no dorsal fin. The dugongs (Dugongidae) can be distinguished from the other living family, the manatees (Trichechidae), by possessing an incisor (versus no functional incisors in manatees) ...

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Order Scandentia

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pp. 38-39

These squirrel-like animals are distributed across SE Asia. They possess large eyes and lack long vibrissae in the facial region. Dental formula: 2.1.3.3/3.1.3.3 = 38. There are five genera and 20 species in the Scandentia; only a single species, one of 15 in the genus Tupaia, occurs in China. ...

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Order Primates

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pp. 39-57

The order Primates includes humankind and its nearest relatives, including apes, monkeys, lemurs, and lorises. Most species have five digits on each limb, usually with an opposable first digit and mostly with flattened nails rather than claws. The brain is well developed. Only two pectoral mammae are present. ...

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Order Rodentia

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pp. 58-166

Rodents occur in nearly every habitat type present in China—from the high elevations of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to tropical rain forests, grasslands, dry deserts, agricultural fields, villages, cities, and even ships in port. They exploit terrestrial, arboreal, subterranean, and aquatic habitats. ...

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Order Lagomorpha

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pp. 166-184

The most characteristic feature separating lagomorphs from rodents is the presence of a second, peg-like upper incisor that sits behind the large anterior incisor. Dental formula: 2.0.3.2–3/1.0.2.3 = 26–28, with a long postincisor diastema. Lagomorph means “hare-shaped”—thus signifying a characteristic posture (more pronounced in leporids than pikas). ...

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Order Erinaceomorpha

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pp. 184-189

Although previously included in the order Insectivora along with the moles and shrews, the hedgehogs and gymnures are now thought to represent a separate, distantly related clade—the Erinaceomorpha, represented by a single family, the Erinaceidae. The fore and hind limbs possess five toes (but some genera outside China have four toes); eyes and ears are well developed; habits are terrestrial. ...

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Order Soricomorpha

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pp. 189-217

Shrews and moles were formerly included in the order Insectivora, along with tenrecs, golden moles, solenodons, and hedgehogs, but recent evidence suggests this to be a paraphyletic clade. Taxa previously united within an all-inclusive Insectivora are now generally regarded as constituting three orders in two clades: ...

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Order Chiroptera

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pp. 217-275

The order Chiroptera contains the only mammals capable of true flight. Characters include specialized forelimbs; phalanges especially elongated; radii longer than humeri; ulnae reduced; patagium between phalanges linked with hind legs; and hind legs and tail also linked by uropatagium that usually possesses cartilagenous calcaria, which function as stays. ...

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Order Pholidota

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pp. 275-277

Body covered with scales that are arranged in overlapping rows, with sparse hairs between dorsal scales (Asian forms); venter and inner sides of limbs without scales, but covered with sparse hairs; each limb with five toes; claws long, claws on middle toes of fore and hind feet especially developed; claws of forefeet turning backward; usually walk on back feet; tail long and flat. ...

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Order Carnivora

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pp. 277-334

Many of the animals in this order are famous for preying on other animals—but not all. Some specialize in eating fruit, insects, bamboo, or shellfish. Although body forms and sizes differ among various species, all the mammals in this order are rather robust and vigorous, with a rather high development of sense organs (hearing, sight, sense of smell). ...

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Order Perissodactyla

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pp. 334-337

Perissodactyls are large animals possessing an odd number of toes, with hooves on the tip—essentially these animals support their body weight on the median third toe of their feet, and their locomotion is unguligrade. The skulls tend to be elongated. Unlike the artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates), they possess a third trochanter on their femur. ...

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Order Artiodactyla

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pp. 337-377

Artiodactyls comprise medium to large hoofed animals. All four legs possess an even number of toes, nearly equal in size, that are arranged around the axis formed by the highly developed third and fourth toes; the limb axis supports the body on these two toes. Toes two and five, or rudiments thereof, are smaller and face backward. ...

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Order Cetacea

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pp. 377-381

The Cetacea are completely aquatic mammals. Both form and structure are highly adapted for aquatic life; body pisciform; neck inconspicuous; body surface with no hair or scales; forelimb (flipper) finlike; hind limbs absent; most have dorsal fins; tail very long, ending in two flat fins (flukes); both dorsal fin and fluke composed of connective tissue, without bone or fin ray; ...

Appendix I. Cetaceans Found off the Coast of China

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pp. 381-382

Appendix II. Hypothetical Mammals

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pp. 382-383

Appendix III. Introduced Alien, Feral, or Free-ranging Domestic Mammals

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pp. 383-384

Glossary

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pp. 384-387

Further Reading

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pp. 387-388

Index To Scientific Names

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pp. 388-391

Index To Common Names

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pp. 391-396