Cover

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Title page, Seriest page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

This book is the product of more than a decade of research and writing that was generously supported by a number of groups. A Tomaszkiewicz-Florio Scholarship from the Kosciuszko Foundation and a Title VIII East-Central Europe Research and Language Scholarship administered by the American...

Abbreviations in the Text

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pp. xv-xx

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

On November 15, 1989, Lech Wałęsa became the third foreign, private citizen to address a joint session of the U.S. Congress, following in the footsteps of the Marquis de Lafayette and Winston Churchill. Wałęsa was not a head of state or even a government representative, but the chairman of the Independent...

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1. A Watershed in the Political History of Mankind: The Reaction to Martial Law, December 1981 to January 1982

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pp. 11-47

At 11:30 p.m. on Saturday night, December 12, 1981, elite units of the Polish People’s Militia and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MSW), backed by the Polish Army, took to the streets to round up and imprison the leadership of the Solidarność trade union. They cordoned off regional Solidarność headquarters...

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2. We Are a Card in Their Game: American Policy Takes Shape, January to September 1982

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pp. 48-87

On June 18, 1982, President Reagan attended a hastily convened meeting of the NSC to decide on whether to implement sanctions on American technology destined for a joint West European–Soviet natural gas pipeline.1 Concerns about pipeline equipment first surfaced after the president’s announcement...

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3. Bilateral Relations Were about as Cold as You Can Imagine: Diplomatic Stalemate, September 1982 to January 1985

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pp. 88-133

When John Davis arrived in Warsaw as chargé d’affaires ad interim in September 1983, he was the third in a string of chargés since Ambassador Meehan exited earlier in the year. Davis thought it would be a temporary position; he only had a six-month mandate. The working assumption was that during...

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4. A Circle of Mistakes: International Pressures, Domestic Response, January 1985 to September 1986

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pp. 134-164

On September 19, 1986, Jacek Kuroń held a private gathering in his apartment in the Żoliborz neighborhood of Warsaw to mark the tenth anniversary of the founding of KOR. That organization was still outlawed, as was its progeny Solidarność, and leaders of both groups had been in and out of...

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5. Very Good and Getting Better: Reengagement and Reinforcement, September 1986 to February 1988

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pp. 165-206

On January 28, 1987, Deputy Secretary of State John Whitehead’s plane landed on the tarmac at Okęcie Airport. He was arriving as an “authoritative” member of the Reagan administration, the highest-level visitor since 1981. Whitehead traveled to Warsaw to meet with leaders from three key...

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6. Volatility in Poland’s Continuing Drama: Solidarność’s Final Victory, February 1988 to September 1989

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pp. 207-252

On July 4, 1989, John and Helen Davis hosted the annual Independence Day celebration at the ambassador’s residence. As Davis reported, that year’s celebration “generated much more than the usual cocktail conversation.” A month earlier, the democratic opposition had won a landslide election victory...

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Conclusion: Empowering Revolution

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pp. 253-282

The creation of the Solidarność-led Mazowiecki government in September 1989 fulfilled a forty-year-old goal of restoring democracy to Poland.1 An independent, non-Communist government had taken power for the first time since World War II. The Polish opposition’s victory was not a clean sweep...

Appendix: National Endowment for Democracy Funds Granted for Work inside Poland, 1984–1989

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pp. 283-288

Notes

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pp. 289-366

Bibliography

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pp. 367-380

Index

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pp. 381-392