Cover

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Title page, Series page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

This book is the direct result of the generous support of many individuals who have shared their expertise with me over the years. This project has its roots from when I first picked up William Warren’s History of the Ojibway People as a teenager. A love of Ojibwe history was a part...

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Introduction

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pp. xiii-xxvi

On December 13, 1894 Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe ogimaa (or chief) Giishkitawag was shot to death by game warden Josiah Hicks on the orders of his superior, Horace Martin. The game wardens were serving Giishkitawag with an arrest warrant for hunting deer out of season...

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Pronunciation Guide

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pp. xxvii-xxviii

In this study, I have standardized all Ojibwe personal and place names in the Fiero orthography or double vowel system that is most commonly utilized by Ojibwe speakers in the United States. Consonants in the double vowel system sound roughly like their English equivalents...

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1. The Rise of Nena’aangabi and American Expansion in the Western Great Lakes, 1825– 1837

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pp. 1-30

At the 1855 annuity payment at Madeline Island, thousands of Lake Superior Ojibwe from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan gathered. Also present was Richard Morse, a Detroit physician. Dozens of Ojibwe leaders were there, yet the one that most captivated Morse was...

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2. Nena’aangabi and the Language of Treaties, 1837– 1855

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pp. 31-64

At the 1855 annuity payment, Nena’aangabi told American officials about his understanding of the treaty that had transpired the year before where Lake Superior Ojibwe bands ceded iron- ore- rich lands in northeast Minnesota and retained reservations. In his colorful oratory...

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3. Waabizheshi’s Vision of an Intercultural Community at Rice Lake, 1855– 1877

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pp. 65-100

In 1855, Waabizheshi assumed leadership of the Rice Lake community from his father Nena’aangabi following the influential leader’s death on the battlefield. Waabizheshi inherited a thriving community, as well as an important political legacy, from his father, whom Richard Morse...

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4. Aazhaweyaa and Ojibwe Women in Transition

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pp. 101-124

In 1915, Thomas Bracklin wrote a letter to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Cato Sells requesting an allotment on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation for himself and his children. Bracklin, then around fifty years old, cited the rich legacy of his family, telling the commissioner, “I believe...

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5. Giishkitawag Confronts Removal, 1879–1894

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pp. 125-148

In 1877, Giishkitawag, at age thirty- eight, became ogimaa of the Ojibwe at Rice Lake following his brother Waabizheshi’s death. The seventeen years of Giishkitawag’s leadership were difficult ones. Federal, state, and local governments all challenged Ojibwe sovereignty. The Barron...

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6. The Murder of Joe White and the Culmination of Removal

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pp. 149-178

“I knew the face well. Blood was running out of his ears. A crack in his skull. His right shoulder all mashed up. Next I saw a bullet mark,” commented Joe Baker, providing an eyewitness testimony during the arraignment of two Wisconsin game wardens who murdered Giishkitawag...

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7. Maggie Quaderer, Steve Grover, and the Creation of Community at Whitefish, 1894–1920

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pp. 179-204

In 1900, most of Giishkitawag’s community lived at Whitefish on the reservation. While there was still a significant number of holdouts living off the reservation at Bakerville on Long Lake, the majority of the community, including all of Nena’aangabi’s surviving children and...

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Conclusion

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pp. 205-210

Charles White appears to not have talked much about his father’s murder, based on what little we know about the murder from his descendants.1 For Charles White, the murder of Joe White was not just an attack on Ojibwe sovereignty but also robbed a boy of his father. The...

Notes

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pp. 211-268

Select Bibliography

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pp. 269-278

Index

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pp. 279-282