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The Atlas of New Librarianship

R. David Lankes

Publication Year: 2011

An essential guide to a librarianship based not on books and artifacts but on knowledge and learning.

Published by: The MIT Press

Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. v-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

I’ve always had a hard time figuring out the purpose of a preface. If it’s important stuff, why isn’t it just chapter 1? Well, here’s where I ended up on the topic and why you are now reading a preface. It is not about the content itself; it is more about the author’s intent and frame of mind. Ironically, it is written last and, although a bit self-indulgent, gives me a chance to reflect on the whole process. The first thing I’d...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xv

I was in a meeting with Lewis Hyde, author of The Gift, where he talked about different narratives on intellectual property. One narrative, often used by large media companies, is that creativity and the creation of intellectual property are acts of individual genius: that an author or artist sits...

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Introduction to the Atlas

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pp. 1-4

This atlas is written for you. It seeks to bolster the defiant who stand bravely before the crushing weight of the status quo and seeks to give hope to those silenced by the chorus of the mediocre and resistant to change. It seeks to show the way forward for librarians in a time of great challenge, change, and opportunity. It is also a statement that you are not alone, you...

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The Atlas

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pp. 5-12

The Atlas is a topical map represented by a series of agreements in relation to one another organized into a series of threads. While many terms are discussed in detail throughout the Atlas, it is useful to at least provide a basic definition before we proceed: • Agreement An understanding about the field of librarianship that may include a skill...

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Threads

As detailed throughout this Atlas, knowledge is not simply a set of accumulated facts but rather a web of personal truths and their relationship to one another (the context). As such, this Atlas is not simply a list of definitions about librarianship but a set of agreements with relationships, with,,,

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Mission

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pp. 15-30

The library is not a shrine for the worship of books. It is not a temple where literary incense must be burned or where one’s devotion to the bound book is expressed in ritual. A library, to modify the famous metaphor of Socrates, should be the delivery room for the birth of ideas. —Norman Cousins...

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Knowledge Creation

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pp. 31-64

With our mission in hand, we can now begin to ground it in theory and deep concepts that will allow it to span any set of technologies or peculiarities of a single setting. So let us start with the most fundamental of questions for a knowledge-based organization: What is knowledge? How can it be created? These are the central questions we must answer to form a new librarianship. But before diving into the details of defin...

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Facilitating

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pp. 65-82

As always, our Thread begins with the mission of librarians: to improve society through facilitating knowledge creation in their communities. But what do I mean by “facilitate knowledge creation”? We know from the previous Thread that it has something to do with conversations, but I need to be much more specific. Where the “Mission” Thread was...

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Communities

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pp. 83-116

We begin as we begin every thread, with the mission of the librarian. To this point, we have explored the need for a mission and its corresponding worldview. We have explored the nature of knowledge and its creation through conversation. We have also looked at means of facilitating knowledge creation through access, knowledge, environment, and motivation...

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Improve Society

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pp. 117-136

If the previous Thread was about listening to the community and giving the members what they want, this Thread is about listening to your conscience and moving the community toward what it needs. It is about realizing that you have a voice in a conversation and a responsibility to guide conversations. Look again at the mission (it is all about the mission). It has two parts. The...

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Librarians

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pp. 137-185

So why in an Atlas about librarianship do I tackle the Librarians Thread last? The answer is most likely obvious: Until we know what we are doing and why, we can’t talk about the skills and preparation we need to do them. There are many professions that share an interest in knowledge creation. Likewise there...

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Threads Postscript

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pp. 186-188

That was a lot to absorb, and you may be swimming a bit. I also can’t end the narrative section of the Atlas without addressing the question I get at the end of every presentation on new librarianship: What exactly should I do now? OK, standard caveats apply here about how your context and your community will ultimately dictate the answer to that, but here is a plan...

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Web Citations

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pp. 189-192

To talk about librarianship in this day and age requires a great deal of citing the web and Internet-accessible resources. This of course poses a challenge to librarians and scholars alike as we seek to accurately (or at least credibly) preserve memory and help create new knowledge. To that end, I present...

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Agreement Supplements

Every agreement of the Map was covered at some level in the Threads section of the Atlas. However, for the purposes of space and creating a narrative flow, information on some agreements was left out. This is also due to the fractal nature of knowledge first raised as part of the “Ability to Work in Interdisciplinary Teams” agreement in the “Librarians” Thread, where...

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Ability to Work in Interdisciplinary Teams

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pp. 195-197

This Atlas centers on librarians and the organizations they build and support. As such, it focuses on what librarians can and should do. This focus might leave the reader with the impression that the role of librarians is the only necessary role to build knowledge in communities. This is far from the truth. Improving decision making, building knowledge, and improving...

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Academic

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pp. 198-199

There is power in librarianship. Yet this power, as it is called on in wider and wider contexts, can become diffuse. The solution is not to avoid such contexts but rather to armor ourselves with the company of experts. By working with the scientist, the writer, the technologist, and the community...

Access

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pp. 200-200

Administration

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pp. 200-200

Agreements

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pp. 201-201

Ambiguity is Essential for Professional Work

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pp. 202-202

Annotations

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pp. 203-204

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Application Builders

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pp. 205-205

Application builders are the agents devoted to software development on the Internet. An application produces software that uses the infrastructure to produce, provide, capture, and organize information on the Internet. Software, for the purpose of this agreement, is considered content free. That is not to say that this software does not provide information to the user. Rather, the...

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Archives

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pp. 206-206

...Bastian, J. A. (2009). Flowers for homestead: A case study in archives and collective memory. American Archivist, 72(1), 113–132. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from the American Archivist eJournal database. Annotation: This article gets at the issue of memory as a feature of archives. Galloway, P. (2006). Archives, power, and history: Dunbar Rowland and the beginning of the State Archives of Mississippi (1902–1936). American Archivist, 69(1), 79– 116. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from http://archivists.metapress.com.libezproxy2. syr.edu/content/m462n0564g87jqm0...

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Artifacts

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pp. 207-207

...Annotation: Bee reminds us that the artifact—let’s say a book—carries a lot more information than can be contained within the textual content between its covers. Artifacts provide insight into their own construction, their creators, and the time and place from which they come. As librarians use their precious space less for artifact storage and more for interaction, it might be wise to consider the potential costs to....

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Assessment

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pp. 208-209

Library assessment is not an optional activity; assessment is a librarian’s professional obligation. Assessment enables librarians to articulate member needs and organizational goals and allows them to know whether both are met effectively and efficiently. Librarians who assess also maximize opportunities to demonstrate library value and impact to their stakeholders...

Authoritative Versus Authoritarian

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pp. 210-210

Avoiding the Florentine Dilemma

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pp. 210-210

Bachelor of Information and Instructional Design

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pp. 210-210

Boundary Issues

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pp. 211-211

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Cataloging Relationships

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pp. 212-212

Much of the reasoning and ideas for cataloging relationships is well covered in the Threads. The underlying technologies to do so are not. There is an active set of projects, communities, and research going into building the necessary infrastructure for this work. Most of it falls under the rubric of the semantic web. Although not all the concepts of the semantic web are...

Circulation

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pp. 213-213

Co-Learning

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pp. 213-213

Collection Development

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pp. 214-214

Communications

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pp. 214-214

Community as Collection

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pp. 215-215

Computer Science

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pp. 215-215

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Constructivism

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pp. 216-219

From the agreement “Importance of a Worldview,” we move along the mission Thread to “The Importance of Theory and Deep Concepts” to “Learning Theories” and then to “Constructivism.” Exploring constructivism as a learning theory as relevant to the mission of librarians leads us to the development of constructivism as a theory of knowledge creation. Constructivism...

Conversants

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pp. 220-220

Conversation Theory

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pp. 221-224

Core Skills

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pp. 225-225

Core Values

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pp. 226-227

Creating a New Social Compact

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pp. 228-229

Creating an Agenda

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p. 229

Credibility

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pp. 230-230

Curriculum of Communication and Change Overtraditional Ideas of Leadership

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p. 231

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Death of Documents

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p. 232

...What is a document and is it even a useful definition? Two theoretical views of the definition of a “document” are found in the following sources: Frohmann, B. (2009). Revisiting “What is a document?” Journal of Documentation, 65(2), 291–303.....

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Democracy and Openness Overshadowed by Technology

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p. 234

In this Thread, Lankes (2009) compares the idea of participatory librarianship to that of liberal (or participatory) democracy. “Liberal democracy” is defined by Encarta as “a political system that has free elections, a multiplicity of political parties, political decisions made through an independent legislature, and an independent judiciary, with a state monopoly...

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Department of Justice

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pp. 236-245

The following report is based on a series of visits to the Department of Justice (DOJ), February 13–15, 2008. During these visits, several conversations took place among the researcher, librarians, and library clients within different sections of the DOJ and in several DOJ libraries. An initial draft of this report was then provided to the Department for feedback. This...

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Dialectic Theories

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pp. 246-249

When looking to theory for support of the basic principles of participatory librarianship, as discussed above, Pask’s Conversation Theory provides a link to the foundations of library and information science by referencing the information theory and system applications research of the 1950s and 1960s. However, Pask’s primary concern was to provide instructional guidelines for implementing...

Different Communities Librarians Serve

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pp. 250-250

Digital Environments

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pp. 251-251

Education

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pp. 250-250

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Embedded Librarians

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p. 251

Embedded librarianship is an excellent descriptor for defining the changing role of librarians. It’s not just about decentralized service, as Gary Freiburger and Sandra Kramer (2009) discuss in their article titled, “Embedded Librarians: One Library’s Model for Decentralized Service,” but about...

Entailment Mesh

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p. 252

Entrepreneurium

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p. 252

Environment

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p. 257

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Ethics

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p. 258

It was 1999, and the AskA consortium was meeting at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education. The panel of librarians, library instructors, AskA services, and government officials were discussing a set of quality standards in virtual reference (Kasowitz et al., 2000). When the standard stating that services should be without bias was brought up, an interesting discussion ensued....

Every Course Has Symposia and Practica

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p. 261

Evolution of Integrated Library Systems

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p. 261

Evolution of Systems

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p. 261

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Evolution of the Social Compact

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pp. 264-265

The community a library serves, and society as a whole, are quickly changing. Ranganathan’s 5th law of librarianship states that the library is a growing organism. Because both the library and its surroundings are changing, the relationship between them is also in a constant state of flux. As the social compact among the library, librarians, and members evolves, libraries and librarians...

Extrinsic

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p. 266

Free Library of Philadelphia

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p. 266

From Authority to Reliability

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p. 267

From School to School of Thought

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p. 267

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Gaming

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pp. 268-269

In the context of the Atlas, “games and gaming” encompasses many forms of structured play—board and card games, computer games, video and console games, role-playing games, war and combat-focused games, and even alternate reality games. Just as librarians support a variety of member interests and age ranges, the librarian should support all types of...

Getting Past the L V I Debate

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p. 270

Go to the Conversation

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p. 270

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Government

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pp. 271-273

Government libraries vary just as much as public and academic libraries do in terms of size and audience.1 Some are tiny and have a narrow scope, such as the apparently volunteer-run NCTC Conservation Library, whereas others, like the Library of Congress, are large.2 Still others function more as academic or public libraries. Military base libraries, for example...

Growing Importance of Two-Way Infrastructure

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p. 274

Humanities

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p. 274

Hybrid Environments

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p. 275

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Importance of a Worldview

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pp. 276-277

Where do programs fit into the current worldview of librarians? Although not artifacts, programs are often based on artifacts (books, games, even people in the case of guest speakers) and are usually highly focused on the tools used to accomplish a specific program’s overarching goal. For example, your typical book club may be created to increase critical reading of books within a community, to create a sense...

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Importance of Action and Activism

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pp. 278-279

In “Facilitating Knowledge Management and Knowledge Sharing: New Opportunities for Information Professionals,” Marshall (1997) discusses the difference between information and knowledge. She explains that, “information is transformed into knowledge when a person reads, understands, interprets, and applies the information to a specific work function...

Importance of Technical Skills

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p. 280

Importance of Theory and Deep Concepts

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p. 281

Increase Friction in the Process

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p. 283

Information Organization

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p. 283

Information Science

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pp. 285-285

Information Seeking

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p. 284

Information Services

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p. 285

Infrastructure Providers

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p. 285

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Innovation

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p. 286

We should innovate because any organization can stagnate and eventually fail without change. But we should also innovate because it’s a buzzword that looks great on resumes and library mission statements. How do we tell the difference between innovating because we have...

Innovation Versus Entrepreneurship

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p. 287

Institute for Advanced Librarianship Idea

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p. 287

Intellectual Freedom and Safety

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p. 295

Intellectually Honest Not Unbiased

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p. 297

Internet Model Example

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p. 297

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Intrinsic

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p. 299

None of these articles is relevant to intrinsic motivation: Dunnewind, S. (2006). Dos and don’ts for getting kids to read. Teacher Librarian, 34(1), 28–29. Abstract: A reprint of an article that appeared in the Seattle Times, July 1, 2006, is provided. It provides parents with advice on encouraging their children to read. Mcpherson, K. (2007). Harry Potter awet of motivation. Teacher Librarian, 34(4), 71–73. Abstract: The writer examines....

Invest in Tools of Creation Over Collection of Artifacts

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p. 300

Issues of Institutional Repositories

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p. 300

Knowledge

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p. 303

Knowledge is Created through Conversation

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p. 304

L0

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p. 305

L1

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p. 305

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Language

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pp. 306-308

New librarianship, based on conversation theory, concerns itself with two levels of language being exchanged between conversants: L0 and L1. L0 is the language exchanged between two conversants where at least one of the parties has little knowledge of the domain being discussed. It tends to be very directional (do this, now do this). Most of the discourse is negotiating...

Leadership

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pp. 309-310

Learning

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p. 311

Learning Theory

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pp. 311-316

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Libraries are in the Knowledge Business, Therefore the Conversation Business

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pp. 318-318

Characteristics of programs of information literacy that illustrate best practices: A guideline. (2003). ACRL. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/ characteristics.cfm. Eisenberg, M. B. (2005). Evaluation—Checking it all out. Library Media Connection, 24(3), 22–23. http...

Library Instruction

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pp. 319-319

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Limitations of Tagging

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pp. 320-320

Contributor Elizabeth Gall relAteD ArtiFACts Mendes, L. H., Quinonez-Skinner, J., & Skaggs, D. (2009). Subjecting the catalog to tagging. Library Hi Tech, 27(1), 30–41. DOI: 10.1108/07378830910942892. Furner, J. (2008). User tagging of library resources: Toward a framework for system evaluation. International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control, 37(3), 47–51. Sanders, D. (....

LIS Education

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p. 320

Longitude Example

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p. 321

Mapping Conversations

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p. 322

Massive Scale

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p. 322

Means of Facilitation

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p. 329

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Meeting Spaces

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pp. 331-332

Meeting spaces are the places where people can come together to hold a conversation, share ideas, and create knowledge. The librarian’s role in facilitation of these meeting spaces can take a number of forms. We can design good physical spaces, create virtual spaces, help people to use these spaces, and help people hold the meetings. There are facilitation methods for the spaces and...

Members Not Patrons or Users

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p. 333

Memory

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p. 333

Motivation

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p. 334

Motivation Theories

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p. 336

Music Center

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p. 336

Need for an Executive Doctorate

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p. 337

Need for an Expanded Definition of Literacy

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p. 337

Need to Expand the Educational Ladder

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p. 338

Obligation of Leadership

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p. 339

Open Source

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p. 339

Openness

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p. 340

Paraprofessionals

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p. 340

Physical Environments

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p. 341

Policy

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p. 342

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Postmodernism

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pp. 344-345

Although experts in postmodern theory cannot agree on a strict definition of the term “postmodern,” many aspects of postmodernism appear in different cultures. As stated in the Mission Thread section of the Atlas, some postmodern thought may be recognized in the reference interview. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, two...

Pressure for Participation

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p. 346

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Public

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p. 347

The Atlas notes that although public libraries come in a variety of shapes and sizes, their unifying function is to be the intellectual glue of a community. In this agreement, I look at some of the efforts made by libraries to understand and respond to their communities’ needs. The literature discussed here is in agreement with the Atlas’ ideas on surveying the community...

Public Service

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p. 349

Publisher of Community

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p. 349

Recognize a School as a Participatory Network

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p. 350

Reference

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p. 350

Reference Extract

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p. 352

Relation to Other Domains

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pp. 352-352

Risks of Data

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pp. 352-352

Scapes

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pp. 352-355

Scholarly Communications

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pp. 356-367

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School

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pp. 368-370

How are contemporary school libraries inviting and creating spaces for rich conversations that lead to learning with students? How can expanding the concept of information literacy act as a catalyst for knowledge construction? How might school librarians get away from the traditional emphasis on...

School Information Management Systems

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p. 371

Selective Dissemination of Information

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p. 371

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Sense-Making

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pp. 372-377

“Sense-making” and “sensemaking” may be pronounced the same, are almost written the same, and are based on similar constructivist perspectives, but they are not the same. When speaking about individuals making sense of their world and their environment, two prominent ideas lead this discussion. The first is “Sense-Making” as championed by Brenda Dervin (Dervin...

Service

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p. 378

Service is Not Invisibility

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p. 379

Shared Shelves with the Community

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p. 379

Shelving

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p. 380

Shift in Innovation from Academy to Ubiquity

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p. 381

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Social Justice Issues

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pp. 382-385

Broadly speaking, social justice issues reflect movements that push for greater voice and more representation for underrepresented or underpowered communities. Because libraries and librarians are tasked to serve all communities, we are inherently involved with and must be aware of issues...

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Social Literacy

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pp. 386-387

The Atlas defines Social Literacy as (i) the power of identity in groups, and (ii) the process of defining and expanding social groupings to further our aims (p. 93). Although the recent emergence of online social networking tools has reminded us of the need for librarians to facilitate social literacy, it is an issue that has been present and in need of attention in libraries...

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Social Network Sites

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p. 388

One way that libraries can look at social networking is to see how the business world is beginning to utilize social networking, and how they wrangle with the issue of language levels, because businesses each have their own specialized L1 language, just as libraries do. However, they also have to be able to talk with other businesses and to people outside of their realm of business...

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Source Amnesia

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p. 392

Source amnesia is something that most, if not all, people experience in their lifetimes. Because of how the human brain works, repetition becomes one of the most effective ways to emphasize an idea over time, and unless it is thought of in relation to the original context enough, it may lose the connection to how it was learned, often leading to the idea that “...

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Special

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pp. 394-396

This Atlas agreement is focused on special librarians. In 1909, John Cotton Dana and 26 other librarians decided that there was a need for a type of librarian who focused on special topics and interests. The event, which has become known as the “Veranda Conference,” laid the foundation for the Special Libraries Association and for the terms “special librarians...

System View

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p. 397

TCP-IP

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p. 397

The Mission of Librarians is to Improve Society through Facilitating Knowledge Creation in Their Communities

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p. 398

Topical Centers with Curriculum

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p. 399

Transition of Traditional Skills

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p. 399

True Facilitation Means Shared Ownership

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p. 400

Truly Distributed Digital Library

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p. 401

User

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p. 401

User Systems

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p. 402

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User-Based Design

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p. 403

Abels, E., White, M., & Hahn, K. (1998). A user-based design process for web sites. Internet Research, 8(1), 39. Annotation: This article went over the second leg of the experiments on userbased design. I think this article was important to include because it went over actual user-based input that was being used. It showed the stages and what it takes to include it. Abels, E., White, M., & Kim...

Vital Roles of Mentors

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p. 404

Warehousing Functions

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p. 404

Web 2.0

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p. 405

Writing Center

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p. 405

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Atlas Postscript

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pp. 407-408

For more than a year, this manuscript has been a passion and, frankly, an obsession with me. I have written it in my office, late at night at home, on trains, on planes, and even on an iPhone next to a pool in the summer. I have slipped out of parties, events, and even church to scribble down some idea. In many ways, it has been a process akin to sculpture. I rough in the basic shapes...


E-ISBN-13: 9780262300087
E-ISBN-10: 0262300087
Print-ISBN-13: 9780262015097
Print-ISBN-10: 0262015099

Page Count: 424
Illustrations: 1 map, 242 figures, 3 maps
Publication Year: 2011

OCLC Number: 827009814
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Atlas of New Librarianship

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Subject Headings

  • Library science -- Philosophy.
  • Library science -- Forecasting.
  • Libraries and community.
  • Libraries and society.
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