Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-2

Contents

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pp. 3-3

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Preface

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pp. 4-4

...to a world full of beauty, change, carnage, and discovery. Stefan was right. My goal in writing this guide is twofold. First, to provide larval images and biological summaries for the larger, commonly encountered caterpillars found east of the 100th meridian. Sounds simple, yet...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 5-5

...Stehr, and Bo Sullivan read drafts of nearly every chapter. Others who reviewed chapters, roughly in order of number of species accounts read, include Dale Schweitzer, Richard Peigler, James Adams, David Wright, George Balogh, Ben Williams, Charles Covell, Noel McFarland, Eric Hossler...

Photographic and Artwork Credits

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pp. 6-7

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Introduction

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pp. 8-34

...species are illustrated, but only briefly discussed (no adult images are provided); and 100 species are diagnosed, but not figured either as a caterpillar or adult. Included among these are forest pests, common garden guests, economically important species, especially handsome caterpillars, and...

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Slug Caterpillars – Limacodidae

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pp. 35-52

...armament. While some are rather ordinary, rounded and sluglike, others are peculiarly angulate, lobed, or spined. One...

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Flannel Moths – Megalopygidae

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pp. 53-56

...crochets in our North American species. Three rows of setal tufts (subdorsal, supraspiracular, and subspiracular) bear mixtures of stinging and longer hairlike setae. Look for a fleshy lobe positioned...

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Smoky Moths – Zygaenidae

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pp. 57-57

...four of the 22 species that occur north of Mexico are found in the East; most of the others are Southwestern. The caterpillars are stout and often flattened. As in related families, the head is partially...

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Skippers – Hesperiidae

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pp. 58-75

...tropics, particularly across ecotones where early successional areas and forest intermix. Although skippers are our most numerous lepidopteran garden visitors, few people are familiar with their distinctive caterpillars: they are a furtive lot, feeding at night and retiring to silken leaf shelters...

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Swallowtails – Papilionidae

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pp. 76-82

...children, perhaps because they are large, attractive, and predictable, the latter being a euphemism for lethargic. Seven common Eastern species are figured, another four are diagnosed. The family is best represented in the tropics and includes the world’s largest butterfly,...

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Whites and Sulphurs – Pieridae

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pp. 83-90

...throughout the summer and fall months. Many pierid caterpillars are a rather inconspicuous and unremarkable lot, more mothlike in appearance than other butterfly caterpillars. Their resemblance...

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Hairstreaks, Blues, Coppers, and Metalmarks – Lycaenidae

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pp. 91-107

...long silky setae in our (Calephelis) metalmarks. In blues, minute star-shaped setae cover thorax and abdomen. Coppers, too, bear unique setation— their minutely plumed (“mushroom”) setae...

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Brushfoots – Nymphalidae

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pp. 108-138

...minute filiform seta near the base of the scolus on A9 (Harvey 1991). While it is frustratingly difficult to characterize the family in its entirety, each of the six subfamilies treated here is distinctive and easily recognized. All have secondary setae, although these are often tiny...

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Hooktip and Thyatirine Moths – Drepanidae

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pp. 139-142

...and rearward of the spiracle on A1–A8. The crochets are often grouped in two series: the inner set possess larger crochets of one or two lengths; in many hooktips there is an outer set of smaller...

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Loopers, Inchworms, and Spanworms – Geometridae

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pp. 143-215

...set on A6 and an anal pair on A10. In those species with more than two pairs, the additional prolegs (on A3–A5, or just A5) are reduced in size. Moreover, all geometers loop when they move, underscoring that only the prolegs on A6 are of primary importance. Most are elongate, somewhat...

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Scoopwings – Uraniidae

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pp. 216-216

...setal bases. Two subspiracular setae arise from a common base (pinaculum) on A1–A3 (setae arise from separate pinacula on A4–A8 in epiplemines and on A1–A8 in other Lepidoptera)....

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Sack-bearers – Mimallonidae

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pp. 217-218

...The head is proportionately large and hardened. In our species the posterior abdominal segments are compressed together and angled downward. The caterpillars form open-ended cases by silking together pieces from two or more leaves. Copious silk deposition within greatly...

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True Silkworm and Apatelodine Moths – Bombycidae

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pp. 219-221

...houses and its commercial importance. The caterpillars are densely vested in silky setae and have comparatively long prolegs. Even the head bears numerous short secondary (extra) setae. There is no anal point (as in tent caterpillars). The crochets, of two lengths, are arranged in an ellipse...

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Tent Caterpillars and Lappet Moths – Lasiocampidae

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pp. 222-228

...the day. Our other lasiocampids are cryptically colored in grays, feed mostly at night, and rest preferentially on bark. Ironically, only two of our Eastern species make sizeable tents. Elsewhere—both in the Neotropics and Old World—many lasiocampids live within communal...

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Giant Silkworm and Royal Moths – Saturniidae

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pp. 229-246

...The anal plate is frequently spinose or heavily armored and the outer face of the anal prolegs often bears a hardened triangular plate. The head is mostly smooth and often shiny. Three subfamilies occur...

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Hornworms (Sphinx or Hawk Moths) – Sphingidae

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pp. 247-278

...these strong flyers. Sphingids possess the most acute color vision of any animals, discriminating floral colors at light intensities that would appear pitch black to the human eye. Tuttle’s (2006)...

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Prominents – Notodontidae

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pp. 279-320

...from upper or lower leaf surfaces. The caterpillars of several genera are gregarious, at least in early instars. Larger larvae feed along a leaf margin, often with the body appressed up against the leaf...

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Owlets, Cutworms, Underwings, and Kin – Noctuidae

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pp. 321-438

...taxonomic flux. Long-recognized families such as the tiger moths (Arctiidae) and tussock moths (Lymantriidae) are now known to be of “noctuid stock,” so unless the classic concept of the family is redefined, these two well-known families would need to be subsumed within the core...

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Pantheas and Yellowhorns – Pantheidae

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pp. 439-442

...Until recently, pantheids were regarded as a subfamily within the Noctuidae. Their body is vested with abundant secondary setae. There is a wart bearing numerous hairs anterior to the spiracle on T1 in our...

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Tussock Caterpillars – Lymantriidae

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pp. 443-453

...family has more than its share of pest species. Identifications can be challenging, even with Ferguson’s (1978) monograph in hand. Recent taxonomic studies indicate that tussock moths are closely allied...

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Nolids – Nolidae

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pp. 454-456

...Nolids include a heterogeneous group, united by their ridged boat-shaped cocoon, which bears a vertical exit slit at one end. Our species fall into two subfamilies. The Nolinae have small, densely...

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Tiger, Lichen, and Wasp Moths – Arctiidae

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pp. 457-483

...especially varied and diverse in the tropics where 300–400 species may fly together at a single location. In the lowland tropical rainforests of northeastern Costa Rica, they frequently account...

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Two Essentials

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pp. 484-485

...While Mexican jumping beans are familiar to many, few realize that the occupant is a microlepidopteran caterpillar, related to the Codling Moth...

Glossary

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pp. 486-488

Helpful and Cited Literature

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pp. 489-494

Foodplant Index

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pp. 495-501

Taxonomic and Subject Index

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pp. 502-512