Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xvi

The fifteen papers collected here represent my engagement with Roman satire over the span of two decades. Having become thoroughly delighted with the poems of Juvenal while studying at Cambridge University for a second B.A., I returned to Yale University determined to make that satirist the focus of my doctoral dissertation. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

The following is a list of the places and dates of the original publications of the essays in this volume, according to the present arrangement. I wish to express my gratitude to the various editors and presses for their prompt and courteous permission to reprint. ...

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Roman Satirists and Literary Criticism

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pp. 3-10

On April 9, 1778, Boswell dined with Samuel Johnson at the home of Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the august company of such people as Bishop Shipley, the painter Allan Ramsay, and Edward Gibbon. With Johnson present, it was inevitable that any dinner would develop into a symposium and that the conversation would range over the widest spaces. ...

Horace

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The Roman Socrates: Horace and His Satires

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pp. 13-49

The Romans, according to the great rhetorician Quintilian, invented satire, and they generally agreed that the man who deserved the title of 'inventor' was Lucilius. Nevertheless, had not Lucilius been succeeded by Horace, who gave the rather amorphous poetry left by Lucilius an entirely new form, it is difficult to imagine how Roman satire would ever have developed ...

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Autobiography and Art in Horace

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pp. 50-73

One of the chief developments of Roman literature involved the creation of genres in which the writer spoke forth in the first person, most notably, poetic satire and love elegy. At the same time that some writers were creating these personal or subjective genres, others were also modifying the once-impersonal genres and producing epic with the subjective qualities of Vergil's Aeneid ...

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The Form, Purpose, and Position of Horace's Satire I, 8

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pp. 74-83

When a scholar has immersed himself for so many years in Roman history, archaeology, and literature, it is only appropriate to offer him an essay on some aspect of Rome. Inasmuch as Henry Eowell's studies have ranged widely from Naevius to Ammianus Marcellinus, there is still a wide choice of apt material. ...

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Horace, the Unwilling Warrior: Satire I, 9

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pp. 84-102

In his monumental study of the influence of Lucilius upon Horace, G. C. Fiske brought the question as close to a definite answer as the fragmentary nature of Lucilius would permit. Considering these few remnants and the well-known scruples of Horace against extended verbal imitation, ...

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Venusina lucerna: The Horatian Model for Juvenal

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pp. 103-114

Juvenal inherits a tradition in satire to which belong Lucilius, Horace and Persius; and like his predecessors he exploits a program poem in order to define his place in that tradition. Horace had thought it so important to establish his relation to Lucilius that he wrote three program satires. ...

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Imagery in the Satires of Horace and Juvenal

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pp. 115-150

Some Greek and Latin poetry abounds in figurative passages and lends itself readily to the modern interpretative technique of analysis through imagery. In this respect, one immediately thinks of Aeschylus, Pindar, and of Vergil. There are other types of poetry where imagery plays a less obvious, though still important, role. ...

Presius

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Part versus Whole in Persius' Fifth Satire

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pp. 153-168

In recent years two major German studies have attempted to reinterpret the verbal technique of Persius as a step towards removing the current prejudice against his Satires.1 Concentrating on the structure of phrases, imitation, and transitions, they have succeeded in eliciting general principles according to which Persius seems to act even in his most outrageous verses. ...

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Persius and the Rejection of Society

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pp. 169-194

Although to some it may seem that I have slightly overstated the case, my title, I feel quite sure, surprises nobody. Persius did turn his back on what we and the Romans think of as Society, and in so doing he abandoned part of the tradition passed down to him from Horace and Lucilius. ...

Juvenal

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Studies in Book I of Juvenal

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pp. 197-254

Scholars have long recognized that one of the principal difficulties in Juvenal springs from his methods of composition, but they have expressed various discordant attitudes toward these methods. Some have condemned them outright; others have sought their causes, while also spurning them; ...

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Juvenal 6: A Problem in Structure

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pp. 255-276

The central problem of Juvenal's Satire 6 is the relation of structure to contents.1 Scholars have been divided in their proposed solutions: the brave have assumed a coherent organization; the prudent have abandoned what seemed a thankless and futile effort, denying any structural unity.2 ...

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The Programs of Juvenal's Later Books

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pp. 277-292

It is conventional to describe ,Juvenal's First Satire as a "program poem," and for good reasons. Not only does the satirist explain his attitude toward his genre, but he does so according to the traditional methods of his predecessors, Lucilius, Horace, and Persins. ...

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Anger in Juvenal and Seneca

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pp. 293-296

In a recent book entitled The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance, Professor Kernan has developed the most elaborate, all-inclusive, and accurate theory of satire which is known to me.1 The most useful portion of his theory for the Classicist would probably be his discussion of the satirist. ...

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I. Tensions in Satires 1-6

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pp. 297-314

De Decker wrote a stimulating book entitled Juvenaiis declamans; Marmorale christened Juvenal "un letterato." Each critic acted upon the assumption that Juvenal's marked proficiency in rhetoric vitiated any appeal to indignation. In an earlier study, I have used one method of arguing against such criticism: ...

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II. Seneca's Discussion of Anger

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pp. 315-339

Keenan convincingly demonstrated the Renaissance satirist's essentially dramatic nature by reference to documents, prose and poetry, that have survived to this day. Thus he showed that English writers of the late 1500's and early 1600's described the satirist in nearly identical terms; that the most wretched versifiers copied the satirists that able poets like Marston had successfully devised; ...

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IIΙ. Jijvenal's Democritean Satirist

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pp. 340-361

I doubt that Seneca, in condemning anger and indignation, says anything which would not also have been said by Musonius and Epictetus to their respective listeners; and Juvenal's contemporary Plutarch knows the same arguments and illustrations as Seneca.1 ...

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Lascivia vs. ira: Martial and Juvenal

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pp. 362-395

Martial has so contrived his development that each line begins with a crucial verb, each marking an important stage in the total situation, and the final one driving home the witty point. The first couplet establishes the situation in general terms: the cost of the house, then its total destruction (cause unspecified). ...

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Juvenal and Quintilian

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pp. 396-486

It has always been a tantalizing pursuit to attempt to establish relations between individual ancient writers, especially because so many of the connections ultimately depend upon conjecture. In some cases, a writer will facilitate the task by at least mentioning a contemporary or close predecessor; although even here a brief allusion may lead to divergent interpretations. ...

Index

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pp. 487-494