Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. viii-x

Journals and those books that embody the scholarship of more than one author are obviously of great immediate value to contributors and readers alike. In the longer run, however, I have noticed that the articles they contain often tend to fall into gradual neglect and sometimes even virtual oblivion amid the outpourings of new scholarship. ...

Chronology of Chinese Dynasties

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pp. xi-xii

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Foreword

Dorothy V. Borei, Charles Le Blanc

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pp. xiii-xx

A productive scholar and inspiring teacher creates his own intellectual biography through the ideas and methodology contained in his formal writings and, less tangibly but equally as importantly, through the manner in which he has communicated his knowledge to colleagues and students. ...

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Introduction: The Essays Reassessed

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pp. 3-36

It is appropriate that this essay, originally written to introduce a handsome volume of historically arranged reproductions of Chinese art, should now become the first study in the present book. Like other compressed introductions, it has the merit of presenting basic facts and ideas in brief and lucid form. ...

The Formation of Chinese Culture

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1. Introduction to the History of China (1973)

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pp. 39-42

Our word "civilization" goes back to a Latin root having to do with "citizen" and "city." The Chinese counterpart, actually a binom, wen hua, literally means "the transforming [i.e., civilizing] influence of writing." In other words, for us the essence of civilization is urbanization; for the Chinese it is the art of writing. ...

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2. The Chinese Language as a Factor in Chinese Cultural Continuity (1942)

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pp. 43-44

In the present age of rapid change and uncertainty, it is not amiss to investigate what may be some of the factors that have given Chinese civilization that remarkable continuity and vitality which make of it the oldest of the world's living civilizations. These factors are, of course, many, but one of the most fundamental is probably the peculiar nature of the Chinese language, ...

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3. Myths of Ancient China (1961)

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pp. 45-84

The student of Chinese religion quickly learns that there is a world of difference between the gods of classical China (ending with the fall of the Han dynasty in A.D. 220) and those of post-classical times. The latter are large in number, diverse in origin (Buddhist, Taoist, or numerous local cults), have clearly defined anthropomorphic traits, ...

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4. Feudalism in China (1956)

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pp. 85-131

The Periods of Chinese Feudalism. In recent years the terms "feudal" or "feudalistic" have become increasingly popular as designations for premodern Chinese society. The justification for such usage is economic rather than political. In traditional China, the basic medium of wealth was grain, produced on small patches of land by peasants who were either petty proprietors or tenant farmers. ...

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5. Dominant Ideas in the Formation of Chinese Culture (1942)

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pp. 132-138

Innumerable difficulties beset the man daring enough to attempt a subject such as this, quite aside from the obvious ones of facile generalization and limitations of space. Should we, for example, consider as " dominant ideas " those that have been expressed by the relatively small group of articulate Chinese known to us through literature, ...

Man in Society

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6. Types of Chinese Categorical Thinking (1939)

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pp. 141-160

One of the criticisms levelled by westerners against Chinese philosophy is that "it has failed to develop a system of logic. Like most sweeping criticisms, this is not absolutely true, for during the fourth and third centuries B. C., the followers of the Mohist school do appear to have experimented with methods of thinking in many ways comparable to our western logic.1 ...

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7. Authority and Law in Ancient China (1954)

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pp. 161-170

Lack of space compels us to focus our attention almost exclusively on the China of the Chou dynasty, that is, on the span of eight centuries beginning late in the eleventh century B. C. and ending abruptly in 221 B. C. with the creation of a new centralized form of empire.1 ...

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8. Basic Concepts of Chinese Law: the Genesis and Evolution of Legal Thought in Traditional China (1963)

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pp. 171-194

Western scholars on China, with only a few distinguished exceptions, have until recently shown but little interest in the study of Chinese law. Today, especially in the United States, this situation is changing, but the stimulus obviously comes much more forcibly from the China of Mao Tse-tung than from the law of pre-Republican (i.e., pre-1912) China. ...

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9. Prison Life in Eighteenth Century Peking (1969)

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pp. 195-215

Fang Fao (1668-1749), a well known Chinese scholar and official, because of involvement in an allegedly subversive piece of writing produced by a fellow scholar, spent a year (1712-13) in the prison of the highest Chinese judicial organ, the Board of Punishments, in Peking. His Υϋ-chung tsa-chi (Notes on Prison Life) is a short but very graphic account of the prison conditions he experienced. ...

Chinese Glossary

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pp. 216-217

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10. Henry A. Wallace and the Ever-normal Granary (1946)

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pp. 218-234

The interest that the Far East holds for Henry A. Wallace has been concretely manifested in recent years by the trip which he took to eastern Siberia and China in the early summer of 1944, and by a pamphlet which he wrote at about the same time.1 ...

Man in the Cosmos

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11. Harmony and Conflict in Chinese Philosophy (1953)

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pp. 237-298

The twenty-five centuries separating Confucius (551—479 B.C.) from the present day have seen the appearance of many Chinese philosophical schools, of which only a few (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism) have survived as organized movements until modern times, though ideas from others have been perpetuated by being absorbed into these three main schools. ...

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12. Chinese "Laws of Nature": a Reconsideration (1979)

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pp. 299-315

As suggested by the title, this article is a sequel to one by the present writer called "Evidence for 'Laws of Nature' in Chinese Thought," which was published in HJAS, 20 (1957), 709-27. The earlier article was in turn inspired by Joseph Needham's illuminating and detailed analysis of the same subject in his Science and Civilisation in China.1 ...

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13. The Chinese View of Immortality: Its Expression by Chu Hsi and Its Relationship to Buddhist Thought (1942)

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pp. 316-330

In the long history of Chinese thought, one of its greatest figures has been the Neo-Confucianist, Chu Hsi (A.D. I 130-1200). For several centuries before his time most of the best minds of China had devoted themselves to Buddhism, while Confucianism, though accepted as a basis for political institutions, had shown little ideological development. ...

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14. Some Chinese Tales of the Supernatural: Kan Pao and His Sou-shen chi (1942)

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pp. 331-350

The curious combination of realism and fancy, practicality and credulity, often characteristic of Chinese thought, is nowhere better exemplified than in the innumerable tales of the supernatural that occupy so many pages of Chinese literature. Even in those stories which make the greatest demands upon the imagination, their author usually takes pains to preserve an appearance of historical verisimilitude ...

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15. The Chinese Cosmic Magic Known as Watching for the Ethers (1959)

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pp. 351-372

Despite its familiarity, it may be helpful to begin with a brief reminder of the salient features of the prevailing Chinese world-view, especially as it was formulated during the Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220). The universe, according to this view, is a harmoniously functioning organism consisting of multitudinous objects, ...

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16. Sexual Sympathetic Magic in Han China (1964)

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pp. 373-380

In an overwhelmingly agrarian civilization like that of China, it is scarcely surprising that prayers and rituals for securing rain should be among the earliest and most enduring of religious practices. They are mentioned in inscriptions of Shang date (before 1000 B.C.), and numerous references to them occur in the Spring and Autumn Annals and other texts of the Chou dynasty (ca. 1027-221 B.C.). ...

Text Studies

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17. A Perplexing Passage in the Confucian Analects (1933)

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pp. 383-387

One of the most baffling passages in the Confucian Analects is Analects IX, 1, which Legge translates: " The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were—profitableness, and also the appointment (of Heaven), and perfect virtue " (Tzu han yen, li, yü ming, yü jen).1 ...

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18. Two New Translations of Lao Tzu (1954)

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pp. 388-394

Professor Duyvendak's untimely death on July 9, 1954, coming when he was still at the height of his powers, takes from us yet another of the giants of European sinology. All who are familiar with his writings have long recognized his eminence as a Chinese scholar. But to friends and students (among whom I was privileged to be one) he was more than this as well: a morally big human being. ...

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19. On Translating Chinese Philosophic Terms (1955)

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pp. 395-408

He perennially fascinating problem of translating Chinese into Western languages (or vice versa) has evoked considerable discussion in recent years.1 My excuse for adding to it here is that Professor Boodberg, in his review (see foregoing note) of my translation of Fung Yu-lan's History of Chinese Philosophy, has raised questions ...

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20. Lieh-tzu and the Doves: a Problem of Dating (1959)

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pp. 409-415

Concerning the dating of the Taoist work Lieh-tzú there is, as is well known, a wide divergence of opinion, for whereas most Western scholars accept it as a work of the third century B.C., modern Chinese scholarship tends to regard it as a forgery of the third or fourth century A.D. ...

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21. Marshes in Mencius and Elsewhere: a Lexicographical Note (1978)

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pp. 416-426

Everyone who reads Professor Creel (hereafter Herrlee in these pages) knows that he can never be dull. To his writings he always brings a disciplined imagination, a limpid style, an unerring ability to focus on vital issues, and a concommitant ability to stimulate the mind of the reader—sometimes quite controversially so. Such is the stuff of great scholarship. ...

Bibliography of Derk Bodde

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pp. 427-438

Index

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pp. 439-454